Thrombophlebitis is a fairly common disease of the veins, which most often occurs on the lower limbs. It is characterized by inflammation of the walls of the vessels and is often accompanied by the formation of thrombi. Treatment of thrombophlebitis can not be postponed due to severe consequences, which can result in death. Blood clots disrupt the blood circulation. They can break away from the walls and move with blood to other parts of the vascular system.
It should be said that inflammation of the venous walls and thrombus formation are independent processes. When inflammatory processes in the vascular walls are not always in the veins formed blood clots. The disease without the appearance of thrombi is called phlebitis.
The development of the disease is facilitated by the following factors:
- damage to the walls of the veins, for example, in trauma, surgical interventions;
- slowed blood circulation in the limbs;
- increased blood clotting.
Thrombophlebitis of the feet often occurs with varicose veins. It can affect both deep and superficial veins. It can be acute, subacute, chronic. Inflammation of the walls of the vessels of the lower extremities is often non-microbial, or aseptic, but if the infection goes into the bloodstream, a purulent process develops. To very rare cases of thrombophlebitis development, which, however, were encountered in the practice of phlebologists, include insect bites in varicose veins.
The manifestations of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities are mainly local symptoms with satisfactory overall well-being. In acute form there are pains in the leg, in the place of the affected vessel there is redness and there is a dense painful stitch. The area of this area gradually increases, there is an increase in skin temperature in the area of redness, there may be edema. If there are varicose nodules, they increase, thicken, become painful. Acute thrombophlebitis can be accompanied by an increase in temperature( up to 38 degrees), chills, general malaise.
Chronic form is characteristic of thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs, which developed as an exacerbation of varicose veins. It is characterized by a prolonged course with periodic relapses. Without exacerbations, local manifestations may be absent or less pronounced. If the disease is started, the skin in the area of the lesion becomes denser, varicose ulcers appear.
Treatment of thrombophlebitis
Conservative and surgical treatment is practiced. In acute form, bed rest can be shown to prevent blood clots from transferring blood clots. It is recommended to lift the affected leg to improve blood flow and reduce pain.
Outpatient treatment is performed if the affected area is on the shin. If the inflammatory process is localized at the knee level or higher, hospitalization is required.
The main tasks of phlebologist in the treatment of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities:
- To prevent the passage of a clot from the superficial veins into the deep ones.
- Stop inflammation. This process leads to severe symptoms and severe pain. Coping inflammation relieves the patient of pain and significantly improves his general condition.
- Do not let the disease return. If thrombophlebitis has appeared, then the risk of relapse is great. Repeated inflammation in the tissues lead to irreversible changes in the subcutaneous tissue and skin.
Modern phlebologists practice combined treatment, applying both conservative and surgical methods. Increasingly, doctors are resorting to low-traumatic, minimally invasive methods of treating thrombophlebitis, which have many advantages, including rapid recovery. Many specialists try to treat thrombophlebitis with non-surgical methods even in severe cases. Although it is far from always possible to do without a classical surgical operation.
Conservative treatment includes medications for external and internal use, as well as compression therapy.
- Antiaggregational drugs that reduce the possibility of blood clots in the vessels of the lower limbs. These include tablets "Trombo ACC", "Curantil", "Trental".
- Anti-inflammatory drugs: Ibuprofen, Orthofen, Butadion, Diclofenac.
- Venotonizing agents for thrombophlebitis associated with varicose veins( Detralex, Venoruton, Troxerutin)
- Heparin ointment, Lioton gel, Ketonal cream.
- Elastic bandages around the clock for a week during exacerbation, then compression knitwear during the day.
- Use of anticoagulants to reduce blood clotting( subcutaneous injections of low molecular weight heparins, for example sodium enoxaparin).
- Hyposensitizers for the treatment of complications such as dermatitis( suprastin, dimedrol, tavegil).
- In the presence of infection, antibiotics are prescribed.
Methods of treatment of deep vein thrombophlebitis
Operative methods are indicated if medication is ineffective. The operation consists in tying the vein in the priust and further removing it with a probe. In addition, a cross -ectomy can be performed, in which the additional tributaries are also bandaged.
If thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities developed against the background of varicose veins, then radical treatment is used - combined phlebectomy. In this case, the operation is aimed at preventing possible embolism and eliminating the cause of thrombophlebitis - varicose veins. That is, priustevaya ligation of veins, as well as removal of varicose veins.
Today, there are more gentle methods of treating thrombophlebitis, which are related to non-surgical ones. Laser treatment is successfully applied and gives positive results. This is endovasal laser coagulation - EVLK.The operation is under local anesthesia and lasts approximately 40 to 50 minutes. After the procedure, a compression stocking is worn on the foot and recommended to walk for an hour. Treatment is almost painless, recovery is very fast.
Treatment of thrombophlebitis with laser
In addition to EVLK, another minimally invasive method of treatment is used: radiofrequency obliteration( RFO).Both methods have proven themselves in thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs, caused by varicose veins.