Hyposmia is an attenuation of smell that has a pathological character. In practice, there are two types of this condition, which can be caused by various factors.
The essential form of the is based on a local lesion of the "olfactory" area of the brain or is associated with a lesion of the olfactory nerve.
The receptor variant of develops as a result of the blocking of air access to the locations of the olfactory receptors.
Medicine has known cases when the onset of receptor hyposmia led to the development of atrophy of the olfactory nerve and thereby provoked the emergence of an already essential variant of the disease.
Causes and symptoms of hyposmia
According to medical experts, the causes of essential-type hyposmia lie in head injuries and diseases of the nervous system. The disease can develop as a result of brain tumors, can result from polyneuropathy, occur against the background of Alzheimer's disease or be formed under the influence of strokes.
For such a form of ailment as receptor hypysmia, the causes are more prosaic. It occurs with injuries of the nasal mucosa, observed during the common cold, and also develops in smokers.
The connection between hyposmia and smoking is explained by the fact that as a result of constant irritation with smoke, the nasal mucosa either dries up or swells. In the first case, the sensitivity of the olfactory receptors decreases, and in the second case they are completely covered by a swollen tissue. The sense of smell decreases very significantly in both cases.
In addition, because of the toxic effect of nicotine, neuritis of the olfactory nerve can form, which causes the essential form of the described disease.
A patient with this disease usually complains of a decrease or a complete lack of smell. Sometimes one nostril smells smell better.
This state often develops imperceptibly, so only random factors push a person to the idea that he has problems with smell.
Treatment of hyposmia of receptor and essential type
Treatment of receptor type hypoxia is based on the use of medications. As a rule, these are drugs aimed at improving the condition of the nasal mucosa. At the same time, a very important point is the patient's refusal to smoke, otherwise the effectiveness of the therapy will be minimized.
Quite another matter - essential hyposmia, the treatment of which usually goes much more difficult. Here the decisive role in therapy will be those reasons for which the described state has formed.
If the disease has developed under the influence of an infectious disease or an ordinary allergy, then it will not be difficult to overcome it and a person will soon be able to normally recognize the smells surrounding it.
If the indicated form of the disease is a consequence of diabetes, arose because of Alzheimer's disease, or appeared after a head injury, it will resist for a long time. And the success of treatment will depend on how well it will be possible to restore the body's functions, disturbed by the underlying disease.
Smoking people, and especially many smokers, kakosmiya is very difficult to treat. And irreversible changes in the olfactory nerve, which can develop against the background of smoking and lead to the destruction of receptors, often require surgical intervention.
In all cases, it is up to the doctor to decide how to treat the hypersemia.