Arthrosis of the foot is a chronic, slow-progressive disease that affects small interphalangeal joints of the feet, leads to their destruction, deformation of the fingers and other parts of the feet. If you do not start treatment in time, the disease significantly worsens the quality of life of patients, and can also lead to disability.
Osteoarthritis is a systemic process, that is to say, all joints of an organism suffer in one way or another, but those joints, which undergo great daily stress, are most prone to destruction. Some people have knees, others have hip joints, and others have joints and bones of the foot. What exactly form of arthrosis develops in a particular patient depends on several factors, for example, gender and age, type of activity, lifestyle, genetic predisposition, concomitant diseases and metabolic disorders.
Most often, arthrosis of small foot joints develops in women aged 40-50 years( a special risk factor is walking on high heels and in shoes with a narrow toe).Men suffer from this form of arthrosis much less often.
The sooner the problem is identified, the easier it is to cope with it. After all, with arthrosis changes in the joints of the initial degree, a completely successful conservative treatment is possible, but if the process has gone far, a pronounced deformity of the feet has developed, their supporting function has disrupted, then only surgery can help.
Osteoarthritis can lead to severe deformation of the foot and loss of its inherent functions
Causes and risk factors of
Depending on the causes of deforming arthrosis of feet on the feet, they are:
- Primary arthrosis of - when there is no clear cause of degenerative-degenerative joint changes,it is possible to find out connections with any disease, which could serve as a starting point for the development of ailment. In such cases, one speaks of a genetic predisposition to arthrosis, which manifests itself in the specific structure of the foot skeleton( for example, a wide foot), and risk factors also play a role. The more of them, the higher the chance to get sick.
- Secondary arthrosis - develops due to some primary ailment. For example, most often you have to deal with post-traumatic osteoarthritis after trauma), it also affects people with congenital or acquired deformities and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, for example, with flat feet, curved spine, etc.
It should be noted that at this timeknown the exact causes and mechanisms of development of osteoarthritis. Scientists believe that the cause of this ailment is the aging of the body. This is confirmed by the fact that arthrosis in most cases begins to detect at the age of 40-50 years, and with each subsequent lived year its amount increases.
Love for such shoes can result in the development of osteoarthritis of the feet
But this does not explain why the disease develops in young people. In the second case, specialists assign the main role to the aging of the cartilaginous tissue and its increased wear. Such people almost always reveal one or several risk factors. Here are the main of them:
- special structure of the skeleton of the feet( narrow or wide foot, high arch, presence of flat feet);
- is overweight;
- disorders of posture and various deformations of the spinal column;
- daily excess loads on the legs, for example, work associated with prolonged walking or standing, professional sports;
- "addiction" to shoes with high heels, with a narrow toe;
- traumatic leg injuries in the anamnesis;
- metabolic and endocrine disorders;
- inflammatory diseases of the joints, osteochondropathies and other lesions of the joint apparatus;
- is a hereditary predisposition to this disease;
- irrational and unbalanced nutrition;
- high growth in humans.
If a person has risk factors for foot arthrosis, this does not mean that he will fall ill. Their definition is necessary, first of all, for carrying out preventive measures. And in the case of an already present ailment, getting rid of predisposing factors helps stop the pathological process and recovery.
Signs of arthrosis of the foot and degree of disease
Symptoms of the disease depend on its stage, as well as on the individual characteristics of the patient. As a rule, arthrosis starts imperceptibly and slowly, but steadily progresses, if nothing is done. There are 3 degrees of arthrosis.
Osteoarthritis 1 degree
Most often, the disease at this stage is not diagnosed, since there are no clear signs. Patients may complain of fatigue or discomfort in their feet after a prolonged stay in an upright position or walking, the pain develops rarely. All pathological sensations disappear after rest. This is the cause of delusions, and most people perceive such a state of health as a normal fatigue, but only such symptoms are repeated very often, which should cause alertness. Sometimes a crunch can develop during movements, but it also happens in healthy people.
At the initial stage of arthrosis, patients complain of increased fatigue of the legs
Arthrosis of the 2nd degree
It is at this stage that the diagnosis is most often established. The pain becomes more intense, it disturbs not only after strong, but also usual loads, longly does not pass at rest. People start using various pain medications, which first cope well with the pain syndrome.
The second frequent complaint is the increase in the size of the shoe, which is associated with thickening the heads of the bones of the feet and the proliferation of connective tissue around the damaged joints. It is at this point that the deformation of the fingers begins. Most often the first finger suffers - develops halus valgus. This is a specific deformation, which is manifested by the deviation of the thumb to the outer edge of the foot and the protrusion of the metatarsal head outwards. In everyday life it is simply called a "bone".This greatly complicates the selection of shoes and is a significant cosmetic defect. Especially in occasion of a bone women experience.
Osteoarthritis of 3rd degree
At the last stage of arthrosis development the pain becomes permanent, various analgesics cease to help. Developed deformities of the fingers develop, mobility in the joints of the foot is lost. This causes the violation of the support function of the foot or even its complete loss. In patients, the gait changes, the uniform distribution of body weight is disrupted, as a result, other leg joints as well as the spine suffer.
Degrees of arthrosis of foot
To establish the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of feet is easy at 2 and 3 stages when typical deformations are present. It is much more difficult to do this at the very beginning of the illness. For this purpose, radiography of the joints of the feet is used, where joint joints are narrowed, subchondral cystic formations, joint deformities, marginal bone growths.
If a specialist has any doubts and needs to perform differential diagnosis, then an MR or CT scan is prescribed.
How to treat arthrosis of the foot?
Treatment of deforming arthrosis of the foot includes conservative and surgical techniques. Begin therapy always with the first measures, and in case of their ineffectiveness they start surgical correction of defects.
Nutrition and lifestyle
A special diet for arthrosis of the foot is not needed. It is important that the food is balanced on the main macro-nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. If there is a problem like overweight, you need to reduce the caloric content of the daily ration, minimize the consumption of animal fats and simple carbohydrates, since excess weight is a serious risk factor for arthrosis.
With regard to lifestyle, it must be modified in such a way as to exclude or minimize the influence of negative factors, to review their shoes and give preference to orthopedic models.
Medication for arthrosis of the foot joints
Drug treatment is not essential, its goal is to alleviate the pain syndrome so that the patient can practice, for example, special exercises for foot arthrosis. Also, some medications are used to slow the development of pathological changes and improve the mobility of joints, but their effectiveness has not yet been proven.
For the treatment of osteoarthritis, drugs from the following groups are used:
- analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( ibuprofen, diclofenac, paracetamol, nimesulide, meloxicam, aceclofenac, etc.);
- chondroprotectors, the active substance of which are chondroitin and glucosamine( Dona, Structum, Teraflex, Alflutop);
- glucocorticoid drugs are used in severe pain syndrome for joint blockade( Diprospan, Kenalog).
Medications are used both for internal and parenteral administration( tablets, capsules, solutions for injection), and for local( ointments, gels, creams, patches).
Other conservative methods of treatment
Complex therapy necessarily includes such techniques:
- therapeutic gymnastics;
- massage and other manual methods of influence;
- physiotherapy( laser therapy, magnetotherapy, phonophoresis, UHF, mud wraps, paraffin and ozocerite applications);
- conservative orthopedic methods of deformation correction( tires for thumbs, interdigital partitions, orthopedic insoles and shoes).
Such thumb tires will help to stop the deformation of
. This therapy allows you to stop the progression of the disease, limit the deformation of the fingers, increase the mobility in the joints, prevent the development of persistent pain syndrome.
Treatment with folk remedies can be used as an adjunct to the basic at all stages of the disease. But in no case it should not be the main and only. All methods of folk treatment are aimed mainly at reducing pain in arthrosis, but they do not affect the progression of the disease. It is also important before using any remedy( there are a lot of them) to consult a doctor about the appropriateness and absence of individual contraindications specifically for this prescription.
Surgical treatment of foot arthrosis is prescribed in severe deformities that can not be corrected in a conservative way, and also at the request of the patient with a cosmetic defect.
The result of arthroplastic surgery for arthrosis of foot
Apply arthroplasty operations, which allow to restore the old form of the foot, as well as completely renew its function. Today such interventions are carried out with the help of endoscopic and minimally invasive techniques, which greatly simplifies and shortens the terms of postoperative rehabilitation.
Arthrosis of the foot is not only an external cosmetic defect, but a serious pathology that can cause a significant deterioration in the quality of human life, and in some cases even disability. Therefore, if you identify any alarming symptoms, do not hesitate to contact a specialist for assistance.
- Causes and risk factors
- Signs of arthrosis of the foot and degree
- How to treat arthrosis of the foot