Cervical cancer is an oncological disease in which a malignant degeneration of the epithelial cells of the lower uterus takes place.
There are two varieties of this disease: squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and a more rare adenocarcinoma.
Tumor lesion of the cervix is diagnosed most often in women whose age is over 40, but cases have been reported in younger patients. Signs of cervical cancer can be easily detected by visual examination, but the disease is rarely detected at the initial stage due to neglect of patients by regular gynecological examination.
Cervical cancer: symptoms at different stages of the disease
- 1 Cervical cancer: symptoms at different stages of the disease
- 2 Methods for treating cancer
- 3 Cervical cancer - stages of the disease
- 4 Prevention of the disease
Tumor process in the initial stage of development does not showyourself. The woman does not feel pain and discomfort, only the discharge can become more abundant and watery.
If the disease progresses, a woman becomes troubled by spotting during the intermenstrual or postmenstrual period, as well as contact bleeding after a gynecologist's examination, sexual intercourse, douching. There may be menorrhagia - abundant prolonged bleeding with clots of blood during menstruation. Characteristic signs of cervical cancer - foul-smelling discharge of the color of "meat slops" - appear at the stage of decay of a cancerous tumor.
The spread of metastases to the pelvic lymph nodes leads to compression of the venous vessels, resulting in swelling of the lower extremities and genitals.
When the cancerous tumor grows into the nerve nodes and pelvic walls, arises in the sacrum, in the abdomen and the area under the bosom of the .A woman can feel pain both at rest and after sexual intercourse or medical examination.
A tumor can affect the bladder and intestines, in this case, traces of blood appear in the urine and feces, and sometimes there are vaginal-vesicle and vaginal-intestinal fistulas-pathological anastomoses, through which the contents of the intestine and bladder enter the vagina. Enlargement of the lymph nodes of the ureters provokes a delay in urine, anuria and uremia.
Common signs of the disease include increased fatigue, weight loss, fever.
During a preventive examination, a gynecologist may suspect a cancer by changing the color of the epithelium and the appearance of sores on its surface. Analysis for cervical cancer is a way to make a more accurate diagnosis. The main methods of diagnosis include colposcopic examination and PAP-smear.
Methods of treatment of cancer
Depending on the stage of the disease and the general condition of the patient, treatment is performed by surgical, radial and combined methods. In performing the operation, a woman of childbearing age, suffering from a preinvasive form of cancer, uses sparing methods of removing the affected areas with preservation of healthy tissues. Such methods include conical and high amputation of the diseased organ and loop electrosurgical excision. With a more pronounced tumor process, removal of both the uterus itself and its appendages, parts of the vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries is indicated.
Surgical treatment is performed in combination with radiation and chemotherapy, sometimes a combination of these methods is used. Chemotherapy and radiological impact can be applied both before the operation and in the postoperative period.
Cervical cancer - stages of the disease
Specialists already know how the cervical cancer develops, and note the staginess of this process and a fairly slow deterioration of the patient's condition. Often, between the precancerous state and the development of the tumor passes from 5 to 8 years.
- Cervical cancer - Stage 1 is characterized by tumor localization within the affected organ. At this stage, cancer is cured in 90% of cases, which indicates the importance of timely diagnosis.
- Cervical cancer - Stage 2 of the begins with an increase in the area of malignant neoplasm. Nevertheless, the tumor does not affect other pelvic organs, so the effectiveness of treatment is high enough: a five-year survival threshold is overcome by 60% of women.
- In the third and fourth stages of the disease, the tumor extends to the lower third of the vagina, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and seizes the intestine, bladder, and organs outside the small pelvis. At this stage, curing the disease is much more difficult: therapy will be successful for 10-35% of women.
disease As the existence of a direct link between the presence of human papillomavirus in the human body and the development of the oncological process has already been proven, was vaccinated against cervical cancer as a preventive agent. For vaccination, drugs Gardasil or Cervarix are used. The procedure reliably protects against the HPV virus and is administered to girls and women under 26 years of age.