First aid for myocardial infarction. Algorithm of first aid

Under myocardial infarction, doctors imply an acute clinical form of coronary heart disease. This condition causes necrosis of entire areas of the middle layer of the body, caused by weak or absent blood supply, which in turn can lead to even death.

Myocardial infarction is a direct result of obturation of the vessels supplying the above area and is caused in 9 out of 10 cases by arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries. A person with this problem, in the absence of proper qualified treatment, gets serious complications, and in some cases there are even fatal outcomes! Regardless of the clinical manifestations, if you suspect a heart attack, you should immediately call an ambulance / emergency medical service, and before your arrival try to provide the highest quality, prompt and qualified assistance to the victim.

The first signs of myocardial infarction

How to determine if a heart attack has begun

The precursors of the onset of myocardial infarction are fairly straightforward and allow diagnosing the problem in 70 percent of cases. Severe pain behind the sternum

. A very unpleasant feeling arises unexpectedly, paroxysmal, with the pain syndrome can "give" between the shoulder blades, in the left shoulder, arm, part of the neck. It lasts from thirty minutes to two hours.

  • Pale and abundant sweat. A person with a myocardial infarction quickly turns pale, cold sticky sweat appears on the entire body.
  • Fainting and borderline conditions. Almost always, especially in the first phase of an attack, a person can faint several times. Rarely does he have an unreasonable sense of fear, sometimes vague hallucinations of an audible and visual nature.
  • Arrhythmia and heart failure. Almost half of the patients who survived myocardial infarction had vivid signs of heart failure, from dyspnea and unproductive cough to atrial fibrillation and short-term sudden cardiac arrest.
  • Low effectiveness of nitroglycerin. A person does not feel much relief after taking nitroglycerin - drugs of this group that dilate blood vessels can be used only as an additional means, together with prescription narcotic analgesics, and only under certain conditions.
  • First aid before arrival. What to do?

    At the slightest suspicion of myocardial infarction, it is necessary to call an ambulance, while maximally concentrate on first aid to a person, and if the patient is you - follow the recommendations below.

    First aid for myocardial infarction. Algorithm of actions.

    First aid for a heart attack

    1. Sit the person on a chair with a backrest or in a half-lying state so that the upper part of the trunk is placed as high as possible - thus, the burden on the heart will decrease.
    2. Calm the patient emotionally or with the help of Valocordinum, in order to reduce the heart rate.
    3. Unfasten clothes that are too tight and tight, loosen all knots, tie, scarf, especially if signs of soon choking begin to show.
    4. Be sure to check your blood pressure and heart rate - if they are normal, you can give nitroglycerin / eufillin( with a sharp decrease, this procedure can lead to cardiac arrest).
    5. Several aspirin tablets actively dilute blood - give them necessarily( if a person does not have allergies) with a maximum dose of up to 300 milligrams. A faster effect of the drug is chewing it in the mouth.
    6. The heart stopped? Is breathing agonal or absent? A person does not regain consciousness for a long time? You should immediately begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the absence of a defibrillator, perform artificial respiration, indirect cardiac massage, or in an emergency - a precardial short fist to the sternum. The basic scheme - 15 strokes, two breaths / outputs, one start-blow, all this should be a maximum of 10 minutes.

    Actions of a patient with a heart attack

    1. If you suspect a myocardial infarction, immediately report this to a number of people, if possible, by calling an ambulance yourself and telling your relatives about the situation.
    2. Try to calm down, take a sitting / reclining position.
    3. If you have any medications with you, take aspirin, nitroglycerin( preferably euphyllin) and corvalol.
    4. Try not to move, report the symptoms of the emergency team that arrived.

    How important is first aid for a heart attack?

    First aid for myocardial infarction can save a person from further complications, and in some cases - save lives! Timely and adequate actions performed within the first 30 minutes after the onset of an attack significantly increase the chance of a positive outcome of the overall treatment, and also reduce the risks of irreversible changes in the cardiovascular system.

    Possible complications of myocardial infarction

    The above condition can lead to a number of complications, both at the early stages of development and progression of myocardial infarction, and after its treatment in the hospital.

    Potential risks of

    1. Primary - shock, pulmonary edema, ventricular fibrillation, pericarditis, hypotension of various etiologies, rupture of the myocardium.
    2. Secondary - heart aneurysms, thromboembolic complications, chronic heart failure, Dressler's syndrome.

    Prevention of myocardial infarction

    Prevention of myocardial infarction

    The first heart attack always comes unexpectedly. Prevention of this condition is usually aimed at preventing repeated seizures with maximum body control.

    The main negative factors causing recurrence of the problem are high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, disorders of carbohydrate metabolic processes and high coagulability of blood. The main prevention in these cases is carefully selected complex drug therapy, which prevents the appearance of fatty plaques, adding to the body the necessary enzymes, normalizing blood pressure, etc. At the same time, changing the dosage or injecting new medicines without agreement with the attending physician is strictly prohibited!

    The following scheme is most often prescribed:

    1. Antithrombotic therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin.
    2. Reception of beta-blockers( carvedilol, bisopropol) and statins.
    3. Use of Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids.
    4. Therapy with nonfractional heparin and ACE inhibitors.

    In addition to medicines, an important role in prevention is played by a diet with a minimum of salt, semi-finished products, sausages, sausages and other products containing both cholesterol and milk fat( cheese, cottage cheese, butter, sour cream, milk).In addition, you have to give up smoking and alcohol - an exception is made only for a glass of red wine.

    As an adjunct, the doctor prescribes exercise therapy and moderate exercise in the form of cycling, dancing and swimming, as well as daily walking - all in moderation and no more than 40 minutes several times a week.

    Useful video

    Myocardial infarction. Symptoms and First Aid.

    . Infarction. Live healthy! Elena Malysheva