22Mar

Diagnosis and treatment of edema

Sometimes in the morning we look "wrinkled" - the skin of the eyelids is swollen, creases appear on the cheeks, the outline of the face is blurred. It's all about stagnant fluid in the body - the so-called edema. A lot of inconvenience is caused by leg swelling, especially when sitting for a long time or, conversely, from excessive activity. Some have swollen hands, and fingers partially lose their mobility. And, of course, these phenomena in 99% percents accompany even a normally occurring pregnancy. Sometimes, in order to get rid of swelling, you just need to reduce fluid intake, but more often you need medication, for example, with the help of diuretics.

Edema is an excessive accumulation of water in organs, extracellular tissue spaces of the body.

Edemas in the late stages of cirrhosis usually combine with ascites and are located on the legs, lower back, anterior abdominal wall. Edema in nephritis and other kidney diseases appear on the entire body, the face, especially pronounced in the eye area. To the touch, they are soft, and the skin under them pale.

In the human body, about 70% of the liquid is in cells and 30% is extracellular. Between them there is a constant exchange of electrolytes, amino acids, vitamins, fatty acids, carbohydrates and proteins. At the same time, their ratio should remain constant. The extracellular fluid consists of a blood plasma that transports metabolic products and fluid between cells. The accumulation of excess fluid in the intermediate space and leads to the formation of edema.

Edema is a symptom of other diseases, so you need to look for their cause.

Fluid retention in the body: edema common and local

There are two types of edema: general and local. The causes of general edema are diseases of the heart, kidneys, liver, and gastrointestinal tract.

As seen in the photo, local edema occurs with diseases of veins, lymphatic vessels, allergic inflammation. Local edema is limited to a specific organ or part of the vascular bed, so it is easily different from the general and is easily diagnosed.

General edema is characterized by a pathological accumulation of free fluid in most organs. This is preceded by so-called latent edema, or accumulation in the body of three or more liters of fluid, most often as a result of kidney failure of salt and water. The fluid in general edema is distributed according to the law of gravity: first of all, they appear in the lower extremities, the lumbosacral region. A lying patient with fluid retention in the body swelling can occur on the face and hands.

Diagnosis of general edema is associated with the detection of diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and liver. Only by identifying the causes of edema, is prescribed treatment of fluid retention.

In any case, you need to start with the elimination of dehydration, usually prescribed a soft, gradual replenishment of the missing volume of circulating blood and lymph. Also, doctors advise to choose a special food. Usually treatment does not do without the appointment of diuretics.