22Mar

Strabismus: causes, signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease

This is just a visible manifestation of various eye pathologies, characterized by an incorrect position of the cornea of ​​the eyes.

Causes of the disease

Strabismus can equally be both congenital and acquired eye disease. The most common cause of acquired strabismus are head trauma or mental trauma, paralysis and paresis of various etiologies, diseases of the central nervous system, a sharp reduction in visual acuity of one eye. The emergence of strabismus can also be caused by progressive myopia( nearsightedness) or hypermetropia( hyperopia).

Congenital strabismus is always a consequence of disorders of oculomotor muscles development. That is why most often, strabismus is observed in patients suffering from such neurological disorders as cerebral palsy or hydrocephalus, as well as chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down's syndrome.

Symptoms( signs) of strabismus

Except for severe cases, the external signs of strabismus tend to appear slightly or absent altogether. In addition, the apparent deviation of the position of one of the eyes is by no means always a symptom of strabismus. For example, in infants up to 6 months of age, the ability to focus the eye is completely lacking.

In some cases, patients with strabismus can observe the unnatural position of the head and neck, squinting one eye, compensating for one-sided visual perception.

Reliable diagnosis of strabismus is possible only after a comprehensive ophthalmological and neurological examination using special equipment.

Types of

There are two main types of strabismus: friendly and paralytic. In the first case, the volume of movement of the eyeballs is completely preserved. The deviation from the forward position in both eyes is approximately the same. In paralytic strobism, on the contrary, only one eye mows, and the main sign of the presence of this kind of strabismus is the absence of movement of the eyeball toward the paralyzed muscle.

Both types of strabismus can appear in a convergent form, in which the eye or both eyes are directed towards the bridge of the nose, divergent - the direction of the eye to the temple, vertical, characterized by the direction of the eye upward or downward. It is also possible a mixed strabismus that combines the manifestations of several of its forms at once.

Depending on the stability of the manifestations, strabismus can be either permanent or periodic.

Treatment of strabismus

The choice of method for treating strabismus depends mainly on the causes of its appearance and the severity of the manifestations. To correct strobism caused by eye diseases, as a rule, it is enough to eliminate the cause itself.

Optical methods of treatment include the wearing of special corrective glasses, gluing a healthy eye in order to increase the activity of the visual muscle of the affected, as well as the use of therapeutic gymnastics with the simultaneous use of drug therapy.

The forms of strabismus, which are not amenable to conservative correction, are subject to cure by means of surgical intervention, the type of which is determined in each case individually. Depending on the form of the disease, an operation may be required to strengthen the eye muscle, or, on the contrary, to weaken it. The optimal age for surgical treatment is 4 to 5 years. If the angle of strabismus exceeds 30 degrees, the operation is performed in two stages. Impossible simultaneous surgical treatment of both eyes, the interval between operations is usually about six months.

Prevention

Prevention of strabismus is appropriate from the first days of the child's life. At first, it is enough to hang toys on both sides of his crib so that the baby can change the position of the eyes. It is best to avoid small toys, for the viewing of which the child will be forced to bring them close to the eyes.

You should not hurry with the development of reading and writing. The fact is that physiological far-sightedness in children decreases only by the 4th year, therefore reading at an earlier age is associated with a disastrous load for the eyes.

Often, strabismus develops as a complication after the transmitted infectious diseases, so in case of infection with scarlet fever or measles, one should avoid such activities as drawing and modeling.

With regard to nutrition, it must be a balanced and saturated vitamins of groups A, E and C. The only way to detect pathology in time is a regular visit to an ophthalmologist, since it is almost impossible to determine the beginning strabismus. In cases of a hereditary predisposition to the development of strabismus and other eye diseases, a medical examination should be performed at least once every 6 months.

Video

How to get rid of strabismus.

TVC "Doctors".Release of the strabismus.