Various violations of the formation of cells of physiological tissues lead to the formation of tumors. They, in turn, are divided into benign and malignant neoplasms. The first species are characterized by slow growth and do not lead to disturbances in the work of other organs and systems. The osteoma of the frontal bone is a benign process of incorrect differentiation of bone tissue, which does not form malignant cells and does not lead to serious disruption of the brain and frontal sinuses.
Causes of bone osteoma
Currently, doctors do not know the exact causes of bone osteoma, which can begin to develop in early childhood and fully develop to achieve 18 to 20 years. At the initial stages, the pathological process is almost invisible and can be detected accidentally with accompanying laboratory tests. For example, quite often the osteoma of the bone is detected during the radiography with head injuries.
With growth, the conjugated areas of physiological tissues are not affected, no metastasis of tumor cells is observed.
Among the most likely factors of negative influence, the following causes of bone osteoma are distinguished:
- , a violation of genetic differentiation of bone tissue during intrauterine development under the influence of infectious viral and bacterial agents;
- calcium deficiency and vitamin D deficiency;
- frequent colds, complicated by the frontitis, sinusitis and other types of sinusitis;
- trauma and the consequences of laboratory-diagnostic procedures associated with the puncture of the maxillary sinus;
- influence of unfavorable environmental factors;
- irradiation, including X-ray.
There are common causes of bone osteoma, because the tumor can develop not only in the latticework, frontal, sphenoid bone of the skull. Osteomies of the bones of the lower limbs and vertebral bodies are often diagnosed. Less common is localization in the region of spinous processes of the vertebrae. But in this case, careful differential diagnosis is necessary with the exception of cases of development of osteophytes against the background of a long-term current degenerative change in the structure of the spinal column.
Frontal sinus osteoma
Frontal sinus osteoma is the most common localization of this type of tumor. The course is almost asymptomatic, prolonged, difficult to diagnose without the use of special research methods. The doctor may suspect osteoma of the frontal sinus when the tone of the voice changes, the constant presence of severe headaches localized in the area of one of the frontal sinuses, and visual impairment in one eye.
There is a kind of pathology that manifests itself in Gardner's disease. In this case, the osseous frontal sinuses are bilateral and characterized by rapid growth, which requires urgent surgical intervention. In this type of pathology, the osteoma of the bone can be diagnosed by local groups in the area of the bones of the lower extremities, the vertebral column.
Symptoms of osteoma and its classification
Typical symptoms of osteoma can begin to manifest only if, during its growth, the tumor affects the associated physiological tissues. There may be a violation of blood supply in some areas. This causes atrophy of tissues and disruption of the normal process of vital activity of a site.
Basically, the symptoms of osteoma also depend on the classification of this tumor. In particular, a hyperplastic tumor is distinguished, which develops due to the rapid growth of ordinary bone cells that are layered on the physiological layer. There is a pathological thickening of the bone in a certain area. In this case, thinning of the bone tissue next to the hypertrophic area can be observed. This provokes a tendency to crack and fracture. In hyperplastic osteoma, symptoms can manifest as a visible physical defect. It can be a thickening of the bone, the formation of a bone growth, which is distinguished by the asymmetry of the face or other part of the body.
When squeezing blood vessels and nervous tissue, pain and numbness may occur. Especially noticeable are these osteoma symptoms in the bones of the lower extremities. In a number of cases, neuropathy and circulatory failure of the affected lower limb may begin to manifest.
Hyperplastic osteoma of the frontal bone and sinus can be manifested by a sensation of pressure in the forehead and inside the nasal passages. The nasal mucosa is usually dry and prone to infection. Due to this, patients have a chronic rhinitis that can not be treated with vasoconstrictive drugs.
Heteroplastic types of tumors of bone tissue are formed from cells of cartilaginous and connective tissue with their subsequent calcification and deposition of salts of various types. In most cases, this is the initial stage of osteophyte development, which has localization in the spinous processes of the spinal column. Symptoms of osteoma in this case can be manifested by typical signs of osteochondrosis of the spine. Upon examination, a dense neoplasm on the spinous processes can be detected. It is not mobile and painless when palpated. Mobility in the physiological volume is not limited.
The most dangerous symptom of osteoma of the frontal bone and sinus is a sharp drop in visual acuity on one eye. Soon, seizures of severe headache and epileptic clinical seizures with clonic convulsions can be attached to this. In young children, this can lead to paralysis of the nervous system, stopping breathing and the heart.
To diagnose osteoma, histological analysis of hypertrophied tissue is necessary. In this case it is important to exclude malignant neoplasms, rickets and poliomyelitis. A primary examination is carried out using radiography or a computer tomogram. It is important to exclude sarcoma and Ewing tumor in the early stages, because they are the most malignant and quickly lead to the death of the patient.
Treatment of bone osteoma: removal of the tumor and subsequent rehabilitation of
There is the only way to treat bone osteoma. It is a surgical operation to remove excess proliferation of bone tissue. The osteoma is removed under general anesthesia. During the intervention, the skin is opened and, if necessary, trepanation of the skull bone is performed. Then a thorough resection of the modified bone tissue is performed. It is also necessary to remove the areas of osteosclerosis with the affected blood vessels.
After removal of the tumor, a rehabilitation period is needed. The primary stage is in the surgical hospital, where measures are taken to prevent secondary infection and efforts are being made to accelerate the processes of tissue regeneration. The subsequent rehabilitation consists in the organization of a correct mode of work and rest, appointment of a special diet with the big maintenance of calcium. In the osteome of the frontal bone and sinus, preventive measures are important to eliminate the risk of developing colds at least in the first 6 months after removal of the osteoma.
How to treat osteoma at home?
Many patients are on the wait-and-see observation tactics of this pathology and are wondering how to treat osteoma at home? The answer can only be one - carefully follow the recommendations of your doctor. Treatment of osteoma can not include warming up, compresses and any other physical actions. This can lead to faster growth of the tumor.
Traumatology and orthopedics are usually used to treat osteoid osteoma. Treatment is only surgical. During the operation, resection of the affected area is performed, if possible - together with the surrounding zone of osteosclerosis. Relapses are very rare.