Hands for a man are very important. With their help, we perform almost all the work, except that only graceful finger movements allow us to write, draw, play musical instruments and create works of art. But often it happens that the usual and everyday movements prevent us from performing pain in the joints of the fingers. Only then does a person begin to appreciate this part of his body. Why this symptom develops, what it can warn us about and how to deal with it - we'll talk below.
Briefly about the anatomy of the
Brush is the distal part of the upper limb of a person, which consists of a large number of bones, joints, muscles and ligaments. A brush is constructed from 3 anatomical parts - the wrist, the pastern and the skeleton of the phalanx of the fingers. When mention of pain in the joints of the fingers, they mean metacarpophalangeal, proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. These joints are larger than all the joints of the hand and are prone to negative effects due to superficial location and great motor activity.
Metacarpophalangeal joints consist of the metacarpal and proximal phalanges of the fingers. The shape of the joint is spherical, which provides the amplitude of movements in the range of flexion and extension, reduction and retraction, as well as circular rotation.
Interphalangeal joints are divided into proximal( between the proximal and middle phalanx of the fingers) and distal( between the middle and distal phalanges of the fingers).Only the skeleton of the first finger, in view of its features and functions, has one interphalangeal joint( since a finger is constructed from two, and not from three phalanges, like the rest).These joints have the form of a block, which provides them with an amplitude of movements in the range of only flexion and extension.
Hand brush consists of a large number of joints, most often affected by metacarpophalangeal, proximal and distal interphalangeal
The main causes of pain
If you have pain in the joints of your fingers at rest or it becomes painful when you move, then most likely you have a disease,which occurs with the defeat of these structures of the musculoskeletal system. Because of usual fatigue, the pain in the fingers is rarely developed. This is possible, for example, in schoolchildren after the summer holidays, when for a long time the fingers did not feel loads and in similar situations. But this pain is characterized as a feeling of fatigue, does not require treatment and quickly passes after a minimum rest.
Persistent pain in the joints of the fingers can indicate the following diseases:
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- gouty arthritis;
- psoriatic arthritis;
- stenosing ligament;
- acute infectious arthritis( bacterial, viral, fungal).
Consider each option separately. Knowing the features of the course of a disease will help in each case to suspect you the true causes of pain in the joints of the fingers and to appoint the right treatment.
Factors that contribute to the defeat of the joints of the fingers:
- the presence of autoimmune diseases and disorders;
- presence in the body of chronic foci of infection( carious teeth, chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, etc.);
- hormonal imbalance in the body, endocrine pathology;
- diseases, which are accompanied by a violation of metabolic processes;
- genetic predisposition;
- traumatic injuries of the brushes in the anamnesis;
- permanent negative impact of environmental factors( cold, hot water or air, vibration);
- professional harmfulness.
This chronic autoimmune disease of the musculoskeletal system is the most common cause of damage to small joints, particularly the finger joints. The disease has an undulating course with alternating periods of exacerbation and remission. It affects all age groups of patients, is more often observed in women than in men.
Symptoms of hand polyarthritis
The initial stages of rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by tenderness in the small joints of the hand, sometimes the hand even painfully bends into a fist. Exacerbation is accompanied by inflammatory changes in the joints - swelling, redness, increased local skin temperature over diseased joints, inability to fully execute the volume of movements first because of pain, later due to deformities of the brush.
A characteristic symptom of rheumatoid arthritis is pain in the hands in the morning and a feeling of stiffness. Sometimes it hurts to perform any movements for a long time - stiffness goes to dinner or even by evening.
In the late stages of the disease irreversible changes occur in the joint and muscle-ligament apparatus of the hands, with the development of typical deformities, which are called the visiting card of rheumatoid arthritis:
- hand with a lorgnot;
- by type of buttonhole;
- the neck of the swan;
- fingers have a button fastening position.
When the disease worsens, there may be general symptoms - fever, anorexia, muscle pain, poor health. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect any joints in the body, but the favorite location is the joints of the fingers of the hands.
So, the brushes of a patient with late stage of rheumatoid arthritis
This is a chronic degenerative-dystrophic joint disease. Usually, osteoarthritis affects the large joints of the body( knee, hip, ankle), but sometimes the small joints of the hands are drawn into the pathological process. In this case, the symptoms are most often found in women in menopause, which confirms the relationship of the disease with the estrogenic background of the body.
Pain in the fingers with polyostoarthrosis appears more often in the evening, after a day's work and physical stress on the joints, and not in the morning, as in rheumatoid arthritis. Accompanied by a crunch in the affected joints, rarely occurs with signs of inflammation. Over time, as the pathological process progresses, the joints are deformed, their mobility is lost, which often leads to the inability to perform small movements, and sometimes even to service themselves.
Specific features of the polyostoarthrosis of the fingers are the specific formations - the nodules of Bouchard and Geberden. Bushar's nodules are formations that develop gradually around the affected proximal interphalangeal joints. Their favorite place of localization is the lateral surfaces of the indicated joints, this leads to a kind of spindle-shaped thickening of the fingers and restriction of mobility in the hands.
Geberden's nodules are formations that grow on the lateral surface of distal interphalangeal joints. Their growth is accompanied, in contrast to Bouchard's nodes, by symptoms of inflammation and pain. With the progression of polyostoarthrosis, the fingers become knotty, which can be called pathognomonic signs of the disease.
The characteristic signs of polyostoarthrosis of the hands are the nodes of Geberden and Bouchard
A variant of the polyosteoarthrosis of the fingers of the hand is rizartroz. This is a lesion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the first finger of the hand. It develops due to constant loads on this joint. Very often difficulties arise in the diagnosis, since the pathology of this localization is also characteristic of psoriatic and gouty arthritis.
Contrary to popular belief, psoriasis is not only a skin disease, in 10-15% of cases, pathology occurs with joint damage. The disease occurs with periods of exacerbations and remissions. The preferred location is the distal interphalangeal joints. In some cases, psoriatic arthritis proceeds as pandactylitis, when the entire finger suffers - it becomes swollen, red, it hurts not only in the morning, but constantly, almost does not bend, in shape resembles a sausage. Recognize psoriatic arthritis is usually not difficult - along with the damage to the fingers of the fingers, one can observe typical psoriatic skin rashes.
Video about psoriatic arthritis:
Gout is an exchange disease characterized by impaired purine metabolism with excess uric acid formation, which is debugged as salts in peripheral tissues and joint capsule. Although gout mainly affects the thumb on the leg, but the localization on the fingers is also common. In the pathological process, the metacarpophalangeal joints, especially the thumb, are drawn.
Gouty arthritis has a seizure course. When the pain is exacerbated, the pain is so severe that the patient can not even touch the affected area. Soreness accompanied by symptoms of inflammation - swelling, redness and increased local temperature.
It is also possible to observe subcutaneous painless deposits of uric acid salts - tofusi, the size of which can vary from barely noticeable to giant.
Gouty arthritis of the fingers with tofusi
This pathology is very often confused with arthrosis and arthritis. It is based on inflammation of the ring-shaped ligaments of the fingers. This leads to soreness with active and passive movements in them with specific clicks. In diagnosis, radiography helps, in pictures with ligament pathological changes will not be visible. As a rule, local therapy for this disease, for example, analgesic ointment is more effective than with other lesions.
Acute infectious arthritis
In most cases, infectious lesions proceed as a monoarthritis - a lesion of one joint, rarely two or more joints are drawn into the pathological process. This pathology can be caused by any pathological microorganisms that can penetrate into the joint directly from the external environment, be carried with blood flow or penetrate from neighboring tissues. Infectious arthritis with pronounced pain, inflammation and violation of the general condition of the patient flows.
Establishing the true cause of pain in the joints of the fingers plays a very important role, after all, recognizing the enemy in person, it becomes much easier to fight with him. Therefore, the treatment of articular pathology should be primarily etiological, and then symptomatic.
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Psoriatic arthritis
- Gouty arthritis
- Stenosing ligamentitis
- Acute infectious arthritis