Endogenous opiates( enkephalins, endorphins) are hormones responsible for feeling happy and other such conditions. The most closely related hormone is beta-endorphin.
The hormones of the endorphins group were discovered in the 1970s. At that time, European scientists studied the mechanisms of anesthesia, which can be achieved with acupuncture. It was found that if you enter into the body medicines that block the analgesic effect of narcotic analgesics, then in this case the effect of acupuncture disappeared. It was made such an assumption that in the human body, acupuncture develops substances that are close in nature to the action of morphine. These substances are called "internal morphine"( or endorphins).
Enkephalins are similar in many ways to morphine by their action. A number of scientists consider them to be endorphins, the rest consider that they are nothing more than a side effect of not completely used endorphins.
Endorphins and enkephalins have a strong analgesic, as well as anti-shocks, reduce the appetite and sensitivity of several departments of the central nervous system. As a result of their actions, a person, according to the proverb, becomes "blind from happiness."Endorphins contribute to the normalization of blood pressure, respiratory rate, etc. Happy people are much faster able to recover. At the present time, scientists believe that the synthesis of endorphins occurs in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
Psychologically acting on opioid receptors, endorphins, as well as enkephalins cause a person euphoria - a morbidly-elevated mood. Such euphoria causes the appearance of emotional disorders. Thus, euphoria is one of the side effects when the body struggles with stress. After overcoming the stresses, the organism receives a biochemical "reward", expressed in the effect of endorphins.
There is an opinion that euphoria arising after listening to music, watching movies, is also caused by endorphin nature. Also, endorphins are produced by orgasm, sports, etc.
A classic experiment with rats is known where electrodes were implanted in their brains that stimulated the hypothalamus. In this experiment, the rat could actuate the electrodes by pressing the pedal. Having established the connection between the reception of pleasure and the pedal, the rat died from exhaustion or thirst, while pushing hard on the pedal. Experience is usually cited as an example of the effect on the body of drug dependence. Endorphins in this case are one and the same thing that the mechanism of rat pleasure. It turns out that this is something like endorphins, which have an effect on the hypothalamus under the action of electrical impulses.
Addiction to morphine can occur not only in people who are addicted to addiction. It is known that gradually, with age, a person is less likely to experience a sense of joy. There is also a link between the operation of the opioid system and the human temperament and neural adjustment processes.
Anandamide( endogenous canbioid).Until recently, it was believed that endogenous morphine are the only neurotransmitters in the body that create a sense of euphoria. But then it turned out that in the human body, the anandamide substance is also produced. "It is capable of simulating the chemical action of marijuana.
In 2003, scientists established as a result of experiments that endocannabinoids are very important in regulating negative emotions.
Phenylethylamine. This hormone is a neurotransmitter so-called.the energy of interpersonal relationships. Thus, the secretion into the blood of this hormone effectively affects sexuality, sympathy, emotional warmth. Phenyletilamine has a short duration of action( less than one minute).There is a hypothesis that phenylethylamine regulates the occurrence of affects, including falling in love, etc. According to this theory, if we meet a person who is attractive to us, the brain begins to produce phenylethylamine. On the attractiveness of a partner, we are judged primarily on the external impression. Synthesis of phenylethylamine and its distribution along the nervous system occurs at the moment of excitation, which embraces us at the mere sight of a loved one. Also, the synthesis takes place at a time when we are aiming for a loved one if he is not present at the moment. However, this theory M. Libovitsa at the moment is not fully confirmed.
Phenylethylamine is found in some foods - chocolate, sweets that contain aspartame), as well as some diet drinks. But the endogenous( produced by the brain) phenylethylamine is more active. "