According to statistics, approximately 200 men living in the CIS are diagnosed with testicular cancer every year. This is a relatively rare form of cancer, in which 0.6-2% of all malignancies form in this region. For comparison, ovarian cancer in women occurs almost 20 times more often - 11% of the remaining forms of this disease.
Testicular cancer has a high rate of development and is much more effectively treated in the early stages. Therefore, it is very important for a man to detect changes as early as possible. To do this, you need to know its symptoms.
Oncological testicular lesion in men has a variety of symptoms and types of tumors. This is due primarily to the fact that this organ is surrounded by various tissues. Pathology often has negative consequences. But it is also dangerous because it can be asymptomatic. This is the so-called "In situ Cancer" form. In the future, it is able to grow into a true current.
- 1 Causes of testicular cancer
- 1.1 Symptoms of testicular cancer
- 1.2 The first thing that is usually noticed:
- 1.3 The main symptoms:
- 1.4 Additional symptoms of testicular cancer in men( appearing with progression of the oncology process)
- 2 Diagnostic methods
- 3 Prognosis and prevention
- 4 Other possible problems with testicles that can be taken for cancer
Causes of testicular cancer
Testicular cancer is a malignant tumor that has developedetsya exclusively from tissues of male sex glands. Symptoms of testicular cancer can appear at any age, but in a particular risk group, men from 10-40 years. The main causes of the disease lie in the following:
- Cryptorchidism is not the descent of a testicle from the inguinal region into the scrotum. And the disease develops in 20% in the lowered testicle. It is believed that the tumor develops because of the increased temperature in the inguinal region. Cryptorchidism increases the possibility of development of oncology 3-14 times;
- Hereditary factor. If the older generation had a similar problem, then the heirs it occurs in 10-50% of cases;
- Male infertility;
- Malignancy of glands is a small testicle, has a soft or too dense consistency, the presence of scar tissue;
- Previous removal of one gland for cancer;
- Klinefelter's syndrome;
- Features of the structure of the body: thin and tall men are more prone to disease;
- Race - white people in a special risk group;
- Hazardous infectious diseases( AIDS);
- Irradiation of the genitals;
- Injury of testicles.
Symptoms of testicular cancer
The first thing that is usually noticed:
- swelling / swelling of the whole testicle or part of it;
- change in the size of the testicles;
- changing their shape;
- changes in consistency or unusual sensations in the testicles( heaviness, numbness).
Learn how to quickly examine your scrotum and its contents in order to be able to suspect problems in time.
But the symptomology of pathology is not always violent. Often the course is not noticeable and long, without causing any special discomfort. However, the patient notices the signs of testicular cancer more often in the early stages of development. Conditionally, you can identify the main and additional symptoms.
- Painless swelling of the testicle. It is detected more often by accident, because during the flow it is practically not felt;
- Pain in the groin;
- Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum;
- Increased mammary glands and their mild soreness;
- Excessive hair growth before sexual development. Special growth is observed on the body and face;
- Decreased sexual desire( loss of libido).
To obtain an accurate diagnosis based on these symptoms, additional studies are recommended. For example, a blood test can give the most complete picture of the disease.
Additional symptoms of testicular cancer in men( appear with progression of the oncological process)
- Back pain;
- Frequent shortness of breath;
- Weakness and difficulty breathing;
- Systemic lymph node enlargement;
- Obstruction of outflow of urine;
- Allocations from the penis;
- Development of kidney pathologies( pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis).
The first signs of testicular cancer become noticeable with distant metastases. Most metastasis occurs in retroperitoneal lymph nodes. They are the main cause of urinary retention and the development of additional symptoms from the genitourinary system. This is observed in 10% of cases.
Shortness of breath and cough occur in response to lymph node involvement in the cervical region. In this case, compression of the upper respiratory tract occurs, which leads to the formation of chronic bronchitis or congestive pneumonia.
Identify the disease allows certain diagnostic methods. First of all, the doctor conducts an examination and finger research. Palpation is carried out bimanally( palpable with two hands), not only the scrotum, but also places of possible localization of metastases.
Be sure to conduct an ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity. The results can give information about the condition of internal organs and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, the presence of metastases. Also examined and scrotum. It is important to identify possible association of the tumor with other tumors in this zone. Diagnosis of the respiratory system is carried out by obtaining an X-ray photograph.
An important point in the diagnosis is a blood test. The so-called oncomarkers are protein substances that are capable of developing during tumor growth. The analysis is made on the overestimation of the subunits of chorionic gonadotropin and lactate dehydrogenase. If their value is too high, the risk of developing cancer is very high. Such an analysis is also performed during the treatment period, to establish the effectiveness of the therapeutic intervention.
Prognosis and prophylaxis of
The recovery of patients is observed in 90-95% of cases. But much depends on the stage of the disease and from what tissue the tumor has grown. The most severe consequences are observed in the formation of the neoplasm of angiolymphatic nature, that is, the germination of tissues in the vessels and lymph nodes.
Prevention of pathology is the timely removal of the causes of the disease. Regular self-examination can reveal early signs of testicular cancer. At the slightest suspicion it is necessary to address immediately to the urologist-andrologist.
Other possible testicular problems that can be considered as a cancer of
It is important to remember that testicular cancer is a relatively rare disease. So do not panic right away if you find a lump or anything else that seems unusual. Consult a doctor for a timely diagnosis.
Some non-malignant formations and phenomena that can affect the testicles include:
- cyst is an abnormal but harmless accumulation of fluid;
- Varicocele - varicose veins. About eight percent of men have varicose veins of the scrotum, which is usually accompanied by severe pain.
- Hematoceles - blood accumulation and thrombus formation caused by a testicle or scrotal injury.
- Epididemoorchitis or buffs is an infectious disease of the epididymis, the testis itself or both, which is accompanied by inflammation and pain. Treatment includes antibiotics.
- Torsion of the testicle - twisting of the spermatic cord, which strengthens the testicle to the body, which leads to a violation of the blood supply. This very painful condition needs urgent medical attention. This problem usually occurs in childhood and adolescence.
- Undescended testicles is a pathology when one or both testicles at birth are absent in the scrotum, but instead are located inside the lower abdomen. The most common cause is premature birth and low birth weight. This condition is known to increase the risk of testicular cancer in later life.
Things to remember
- A self-examination of the testicles( TSE) takes only a minute, and can help detect abnormalities.
- Knowing the look and feel of the contents of your scrotum, it is much easier to notice any changes at an early stage.
- You should consult a doctor for timely diagnosis if you have any cones or swollen.