Stroke, or impaired cerebral circulation, is one of the most common causes of death and disability among the population of most developed countries. In this case, the lethal outcome is possible not only during the stroke itself, but also during the first few weeks after it. About 35% of patients die within three to four weeks after a stroke. About 60% of those who survived are disabled.
Those close to the patient who has undergone a brainstroke should know that recovery from a stroke is a long, difficult but very important process. The main goal of rehabilitation measures is first of all the restoration of the brain, motor abilities and speech, social adaptation, as well as the prevention of repeated strokes and their complications. The role of family members is difficult to overestimate. From their participation, patience and right actions depends to a large extent on whether they will be able to return( and how quickly) the lost functions.
The recovery period after a stroke is a difficult stage in the life not only of the patient, but also of his family. Violations are very serious and depend on how much and which part of the brain is damaged. Patients may be impaired limb movement, coordination, vision, swallowing, speech, hearing, the ability to control defecation and urination. They, as a rule, hardly perceive the information, quickly get tired, do not own emotions, fall into depression. Recovery of patients can take more than one month and even more than one year.
It should be said that full restoration is not always possible. Violation of the blood circulation of the brain often leads to irreversible consequences. Therefore, you need to be prepared for the fact that you have to adapt to the emerging defect and learn to do homework in the new conditions. It is important to remember that a positive attitude and perseverance can shorten the recovery period, in time to return completely or partially motor and other abilities.
With the joint efforts of doctors and relatives, the patient has the opportunity to return to normal life, to become socially active and able-bodied. Restoring functions to a large extent depends on how early the activities started. In addition, it is important not to be lazy and train the affected side. Today, patients and their relatives are provided with rehabilitation centers, where they are provided with qualified assistance.
Recovery levels of
There are three levels of recovery after hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke.
- The first is the highest. This is a true restoration, in which all functions return completely to the initial state. This option is possible if there is no complete death of brain nerve cells.
- The second level is compensation. Functions are compensated for by functional restructuring and the involvement of new structures. This is an early recovery period - usually the first six months after a stroke.
- The third level is a readaptation, that is, an adaptation to an emerging defect. In this case, we mean the use of walking sticks, wheelchairs, walkers, orthoses.
Adverse factors for recovery:
- large lesion of the brain;
- location of the focus in functionally important areas( for speech and motor functions);
- poor blood circulation around the lesion;
- advanced age;
- emotional disturbances.
To favorable prognostic factors include:
- early spontaneous restoration of functions;
- early start of recovery activities.
Main principles of
- recovery Early start of recovery of lost functions.
- Adequacy and integrated approach.
- Good organization of events, regularity and long-term holding.
- The patient and family members should actively participate in the rehabilitation process.
As already mentioned, the main burden of reconstruction falls on the shoulders of close relatives. We must be prepared for the fact that the improvement may not come very long, and the recovery time will be prolonged. It is important to show patience, maintain a positive attitude, praise the patient for the slightest achievements. At the same time, the help should be dosed, so that the survivor strokes faster to become independent. The role of the family is as follows:
- holding with the patient classes to restore the ability to move, speech, reading, writing, walking, domestic skills;
- involves the patient in various activities, as inaction leads to depression, depression and apathy;
- help to re-integrate into society.
Restoration of movement
Normalization of motor activity and recovery of muscle strength after a stroke is a priority. Treatment of the situation is prescribed from the first day of illness. Its duration is set by the doctor individually. The doctor shows relatives how to lay the affected limb, how to use sandbags or langets to fix it. Treatment is carried out twice a day for half an hour after medical gymnastics. Do not stack the affected limbs during meals or immediately after eating. When complaining about numbness and discomfort, you need to change the position of the arm or leg.
To help the patient recover quickly, on the second day after a stroke, to improve mobility in the joints, passive movements are made, which should be leisurely, smooth and in no case cause unpleasant sensations and pain. Usually they are performed with the help of a physical training instructor. Bend and unbend the affected limbs, withdraw them to the sides, rotate.
Restoration of motor activity after a stroke
When the patient is lying down, he can do such exercises as eye rotation, blinking, moving the look to the sides, up, down.
First, the patient is put on the bed for several minutes, gradually increasing this time. Then they teach him to stand, while he clings to the back of the bed or the hand of his assistant. Shoes are better to buy high, so that the foot does not turn up.
Soon you need to move on to learning walking. This function may not be restored soon. The patient needs to help with movement and not leave him alone. Gradually move to walking with a support. It can be a chair, an arena, a cane. When success will be noticeable, it is recommended to go out into the street.
If the patient uses a wheelchair, then you need to learn how to move him from bed to chair and back.
First symptoms of stroke
Speech disorders often occur in brain lesions. The patient may have difficulty expressing his thoughts, as well as understanding someone else's speech. The functions of speech are restored a long time - for 3-4 years. This process requires the involvement of a specialist in this field.
Violations can be varied. The patient does not understand what they say to him. The patient is able to understand what is being said to him, but can not express his thoughts. He can use wrong words, have difficulty with reading and writing.
In this case, you need to be patient, speak slowly, speak good words, use simple phrases, give the patient time to understand what has been said. Ask questions in such a way that he can answer in the affirmative or negative.
In addition, after a stroke, often there are violations of the muscles of the tongue and face. In this case, it is slow and illegible, and the voice is deaf. The speech therapist teaches the patient the exercises that train the tongue and facial muscles, and also provides a list of words to improve pronunciation of sounds. Classes should be held regularly. Exercises should be done before the mirror.
Restoration of swallowing
After acute disruption of the blood circulation of the brain, there are often difficulties with chewing, swallowing, saliva production. Patients do not feel food on one side of the mouth.
To restore the swallowing function, special exercises are also used, restoring the strength of the muscles that are involved in swallowing and improve the mobility of the tongue and lips.
To facilitate the swallowing process, you need to choose food that is easy to chew and swallow. It should not be hot and not cold, with a delicious smell. Feed the patient only in a sitting position.
Furnishing in the house
The apartment needs changes so that the patient's life becomes safe and more comfortable. The house should not have high rapids and carpets. It is better to buy a special bed with high sides to avoid falls. Everywhere there must be railings and handrails so that the patient can hold on. The apartment needs good lighting, and in the patient's room the nightlight should be switched on all night.
Prevention of recurrent stroke
After a stroke, it is important not only to recover, but not to allow a repetition of the stroke. For this you need to lead a healthy lifestyle:
- Take regular medications.
- Normalize weight.
- Perform daily pressure monitoring.
- Do the curative gymnastics.
- Completely abandon smoking and alcohol.
- Control the level of sugar and cholesterol.
- Periodically consult a doctor.
Sanatorium rehabilitation after a stroke
A person who has suffered a stroke can be referred for treatment to a sanatorium where various methods of recovery are used. Apply balneotherapy, mud therapy, physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy, climatotherapy, medication.
After ischemic stroke, radon, hydrogen sulphide, iodide-bromine, carbon dioxide baths, mud therapy in the form of applications are effective.
Motor activity is useful after both ischemic and after hemorrhagic stroke. Therapeutic physical training is hygienic gymnastics, dosed walking two or three times a day.
After a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in a sanatorium, different types of massage are used. Usually the procedure is carried out in the morning after breakfast.
In the sanatorium of patients who have suffered a stroke, they are trained in labor skills. For this purpose mobile and stationary stands with a set of household and household items are equipped. Of the methods of recovery in the sanatorium also use auto-training and psychotherapy.