25Mar

Dizziness and loss of balance in adults

Light dizziness after an unexpected sharp change of position or rotation on the dance floor is a normal reaction of the body. But when the world leaves from under the feet for no apparent reason, and dizziness is observed often - you need to seek help from a doctor. Symptoms such as a loss of balance and dizziness are found for various reasons in every fourth adult.

Symptoms such as dizziness and a sense of loss of balance, in most cases, can be caused by the same reasons. Dizziness and nausea are also common.

To the disturbance of balance and dizziness are:

  • feeling, as if everything revolves around;
  • sensation that the body rotates in the opposite direction, relative to surrounding objects;
  • feeling of pitching - it seems that the ground is floating underfoot;
  • brings to the side, as if "something" was pulled there.

Often disturbances of balance and dizziness accompany other symptoms: nausea, vomiting, nystagmus( rapid eye swings), hearing loss and headaches.

Contents of

  • 1 Causes of imbalance and dizziness in the elderly
  • 2 Diagnosis of dizziness and loss of balance
    • 2.1 Indications for an immediate visit to the doctor are:
    • 2.2 Hearing disorders that can cause balance disorders
  • 3 Treatment of dizziness and loss of balance

Causes of impairmentbalance and dizziness in the elderly

Very often loss of balance is caused by ear diseases , because there is an organ that is notresponsible for - the vestibular apparatus. The cause may also be poisoning, for example, aspirin, quinine, botulinum toxin( causes botulism), mushrooms, alcohol, etc. After detoxification, as a rule, everything returns to normal.

But in the case of the elderly, dizziness and disturbed sense of balance are very often the consequence of of the brain's hypoxia - there is insufficient supply of oxygen to it, due to a blood flow disorder.
Blame for this are atherosclerotic plaques that form on the walls of arteries with "bad" cholesterol, as well as degenerative changes in the cervical spine. This leads to difficulty in moving blood in the arteries supplying the brain. Unfavorable vascular changes can also occur if you do not take action in diabetes or hypertension .In addition, hypoxia of the brain can be a consequence of severe anemia. In such cases, the most effective way to alleviate dizziness and loss of balance is to treat cardiovascular problems and the causes that cause them. It is also necessary to take care of lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood.

Elderly people, as a result of a variety of diseases, often have damaged peripheral nerves, muscles, joints. This can also be the cause of imbalance, or rather a motor disorder, but not accompanied by dizziness.

This kind of symptoms appear in people who have received anti-epileptic agents( contained in anticonvulsant drugs), sedatives( a kind of soothing) remedy, or are observed in the late stage of multiple sclerosis.

Diagnosis of dizziness and loss of balance

There are many causes of dizziness and imbalance, so it is often difficult to quickly make an accurate diagnosis.

Sometimes it is necessary to undergo examination from many specialists, for example, ENT, ophthalmologist and neurologist.
A very important part is the description of the problem to the doctor. He usually asks about the frequency and intensity of dizziness, their duration, the concomitant signs of imbalance, as well as the illnesses, injuries, drugs for treatment, and even working or living conditions. Also, additional specific examinations may be required, which are not done in all the excavations:

  • audiometry( hearing study) - the patient presses the button when he begins to hear the sound from the headphones;
  • provocative test - deliberate calling of nystagmus( involuntary eye movements) and dizziness, for example, by rotation in a special Barani chair that is used to check the vestibular apparatus, or by using the Dix-Hallpike sample;
  • electro- and video-histogram( ENG and VNG) - recording of involuntary eye movements( nystagmus), using electrodes that cling to the temples and record electrical potentials( as on the ECG), or with the use of special glasses.

Radiological methods for examining the bones of the cervical spine and head - MRI, CT and, so-called dopplerometry( determination of the blood flow velocity using ultrasound) in arteries supplying the brain, can help in determining the cause of imbalance.

Indication for immediate visit to the doctor are:

  • periodic or severe dizziness, or headaches,
  • speech disorders;
  • blurred vision( "fog" before the eyes);
  • hearing impairment;
  • difficulty walking, frequent falls;
  • weakness in the muscles of the legs;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • sensation of numbness or tingling of the hands and feet.

Hearing disorders that can cause balance disorders

If frequent dizziness is observed, one of the first ones to visit is an otolaryngologist( LOR), because such symptoms can accompany various diseases of the hearing chamber. Sometimes just a simple analysis is enough to diagnose and begin treatment that will get rid of these problems.

  1. Labyrinite ( inflammation of the inner ear, and there is a vestibular apparatus in it).Also called internal otitis. The exact causes of it are not known, but such inflammation can arise, for example, as a complication after the flu. In this case, there is usually a sharp dizziness, nausea and vomiting, lasting several days. The disease passes after treatment with antibiotics, sometimes steroids, but when it is not caused by bacteria - it can pass itself. In some cases, specialized rehabilitation is necessary - one must learn to maintain balance through exercises( head and body movements).
  2. Benign paroxysmal positional dizziness( D) - the movement of small "stones" that are formed due to damage to the otolith membrane, in the channels of the labyrinth, which causes its irritation, in consequence and dizziness. For example, such dizziness manifests itself when hanging headfirst, quickly rising from bed, pumping from side to side. This state does not last long, but intensely - the head usually spins a few seconds, but it is often difficult to resist even on the legs.

This phenomenon is also sometimes called "otolysis".This is one of the most common causes of dizziness( 17%), and is more common in women. If you woke up in the morning or at night, from the feeling of a strong head spin, then it is most likely that there is a DPPG.

This kind of dizziness in the elderly is usually caused by the fragmentation of the otoliths - the small crystals that were previously found in the otolith membrane. Free pieces of them move during the movement of the head and irritate the labyrinths. In this case, if medications and attempts to avoid certain movements do not help, an operation is necessary, during which "garbage" is removed. There are special exercises for the treatment of this problem, aimed at "pumping" otoliths.

  1. Damage to the tympanic membrane. It can cause dizziness if, for example, cold air or water reaches the middle ear. In such a situation, installation in the ear of a tampon can help before swimming in a pond or going out on a frost.
  2. Meniere's disease. For unknown reasons, an excessive amount of fluid accumulates in the inner ear, which causes dizziness, nausea, tinnitus and loss of hearing( with every fit the person hears worse and worse).If diuretics, antihistamines, steroid drugs and salt avoidance are not helpful in the diet, surgery may be required( sometimes with removal of the labyrinth inclusive).
  3. Neurinoma of the auditory nerve. A benign tumor that, however, causes hearing loss, tinnitus, impaired sense of balance. In this case, treatment is only prompt.

The structure of the vestibular apparatus

Treatment of dizziness and loss of balance

The way to treat equilibrium disorders depends on their cause. Sometimes there is enough antiemetic and sedative drugs. But such therapy allows only to remove symptoms, and not the cause of violations.

In some cases, doctors prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs that improve metabolism in nerve cells. Sometimes surgical treatment is necessary.
Regardless of the therapy chosen, it is very important for disorders of balance and dizziness that the motor rehabilitation is. With the help of appropriate training, many problems can be removed, because equilibrium is not only a well-functioning labyrinth.