Arterial hypertension is very dependent on nervous tension, stress situations. Dietary recommendations are similar to anti-cholesterol, and this is understandable: both pathologies accompany and complicate each other. Abundant or malnutrition with hypertension contributes to the crisis and malignant course of the disease. Therefore, he is given special attention.
The role of proper nutrition
Therapeutic diet for hypertension:
- promotes normalization of vascular tone regulation;
- eliminates metabolic( metabolic) changes;
- improves the condition of the vascular wall;
- unloads and normalizes the work of the kidneys and adrenal glands;
- reduces blood clotting.
Individual approach is necessary for people with excess weight. For them, you need to pick up a special unloading menu for 1 - 2 days a week.
Basic principles in the dietary approach to treatment
When preparing a diet for a patient with hypertension, you need not simply consider what you can or can not eat, but follow the basic rules of nutrition:
- a complete composition of foods by the amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates;
- reduction of animal fats, extractives, light carbohydrates;
- a balanced amount of salt, vitamins, trace elements;
- enrichment with potassium compounds with magnesium, vitamins of group B, C, P;
- obligatory inclusion of vegetable oils and products rich in fat-loss factors( methionine, choline);
- use of seafood dishes, fish enriched with trace elements( iodine) and vitamins;
- division of meals at 5 per day;
- before bedtime can be only for 2 hours;
- all food is prepared without the addition of salt;
- method of preparation of the second dishes - boiling or steam, baking or easy roasting is allowed;
- the total volume of liquid( including soup and tea) can not exceed 1.5 liters, and according to the indications, even less.
- cereals( rice, oatmeal and semolina);
- vegetables( cabbage, potatoes, different kinds of cauliflower, carrots, zucchini, beets);
- meat( rabbit meat, beef);
- fish( pike perch, pike, carp, perch).
Daily diet should contain daily:
- of proteins - 100 g,
- of carbohydrates - 400 g,
- of fats - 100 g.
The total caloric value for people with a normal weight is not more than 2500 kcal.
That it is impossible to eat a hypertonic
The diet at a hypertonia demands restriction, and in 2 - 3 stages - the full interdiction of some products.
- meat and fish boiling broth;
- fatty meat of lamb, pork;
- hard-boiled tea and coffee;
- fat and beef fat;
- spicy seasonings( pepper, mustard);
- buns, cakes with cream;
- pickles and marinades, radish;
- fatty sauces, mayonnaise;
- chocolate and cocoa;
- alcohol in any form;
- carbonated sweet water with gas.
A person with hypertension needs an individual salt shaker on the table, a teaspoon of salt is poured into it( 5g) and the flow is controlled during the day.
What is possible, but rarely
In proper nutrition, hypertension is limited to one admission per week:
- beans( beans, peas, lentils);
- turnip, radish, spinach, mushrooms;
- sour cream, ice cream, cream;
- processed cheese;
- vegetable oil - no more than 30 g, creamy - maximum 20 g for the whole day;
- sweets - sugar up to 50 g per day, jam or honey is allowed, but in cases of excessive weight all sweets are forbidden;
- salt - 3-5 g.
What is allowed to use without harm to health
A variety of products are allowed:
- rye bread, "Doctoral", "Bran", "Buckwheat", biscuit, biscuit uneaten;
- vegan soups, dairy, meat not more than three times a week;
- lean meat in boiled or steam form;
- fish boiled and baked dishes( cod, navaga, pike perch, carp);
- vegetable stew and hodgepodge of courgettes, eggplant, pumpkin, tomatoes with onion, garlic, parsley, horseradish;
- porridges, puddings, casseroles from cereals( buckwheat, millet, rice);
- milk, low-fat fresh curd, kefir, mild hard cheeses;
- weak tea with milk, berry and fruit juices, mineral water depending on the acidity of the gastric juice, decoction of the dogrose;
- casseroles with fruit, unsweetened vegetable stew, hodgepodge;
- salads from seafood( squid, sea kale, shrimp, mussels);
- lean ham from poultry;
- sauces and gravies can be prepared only on vegetable broth.
What to add to improve the taste of
Because unsalted food is not very pleasant to eat, nutritionists recommend adding cranberries, lemon, prunes, cinnamon, honey, candied fruits, cumin, anise to salt-free dough in cooking recipes. And in the first and second dishes - parsley, vinegar, dill, citric acid.
This will allow the patient to follow the diet without regrets.
Features of nutrition in the IIb and III stages of hypertension
Severe forms of the disease require more stringent restrictions:
- salt is excluded;
- low-fat meat broth - once a week;
- eggs - no more than 2 pieces per week;
- meat dishes only boiled;
- vegetable or butter is put in a plate with ready-to-eat food before consumption( 1 tablespoon);
- recommended vegetarian dishes.
For steam cooking, you do not need to buy a steamer, you can buy a special mesh( it extends to the size of the pan) or use a colander
Low-calorie days for unloading the
A diet for hypertension for overweight people requires more serious restrictions on sweets, breads, cereals and pastain the diet. As agreed with the doctor, low-calorie unloading days can be applied with breakdown into 5 to 6 meals:
- curd( half a kilo of cottage cheese and half a liter of kefir for the whole day);
- kefir( 1.5 liters);
- watermelon or apple( 1.5 kg);
- rice and compote( 50 g boiled rice and 1,5 l compote of dried fruits);
- milk( 6 glasses of milk in a warm form).
Sample menu for hypertension for 1 day
Just for a day, it is planned to use rye and wheat bread for 150 grams, butter 10 g, sugar not more than 50 g.
In the morning before work:
- vinaigrette in vegetable oil;
- boiled meat;
- cup of tea with milk.
Second breakfast( during lunch break):
- vegetable salad;
- boiled chicken with rice;
Lunch( at home after work):
- vegetable soup with sour cream;
- stew with potatoes;
- compote of dried fruits.
- baked fish;
- cottage cheese with sugar;
- tea with the addition of milk.
2 hours before bedtime, drink a glass of curdled milk or kefir.
Perhaps the diet of a particular patient will require correction depending on the concomitant diseases, habits and features of the national cuisine. It should take into account the compatibility of food with the drugs used, so you can not do without the recommendations of a doctor.