Uterine bleeding with menstruation - this is completely normal for every woman of reproductive age phenomenon. Although almost everyone had to meet and with pathology. Abnormal bleeding may be revealed, either between menstruation, before or after, and during menstruation. Therefore, it is important to be able to distinguish menstruation from the disease.
The difference between menstruation and
pathology. The only norm is menstrual bleeding caused by the rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium and its removal through the cervical canal and vagina if fertilization does not occur.
Blood is normally discharged from 3 to 7 days, with minor abdominal pain. This process is cyclical, repeated an average of 28 days. On the first day, as a rule, the allocation is uninvolved. On the second and third day, the bleeding is intense, the remaining days of excretion are usually meager, gradually diminishing and stopping.
According to medical estimates, about 80 ml of blood should be released during the bleeding with monthly bleeding, and not more than 150 ml with the separated endometrium. If you translate on the gaskets, then for the period of menstruation normally approximately 10 pads are consumed.
Monthly starts at the age of 11-15 years and ends on the average in 45-50 years. In the reproductive age, they are absent during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
As a rule, most women can distinguish between natural discharges during menstruation from pathology. However, it will not be superfluous to recall the main signs of abnormal bleeding:
- too abundant discharge of blood from the vagina( more than 80 ml);
- duration exceeds seven days;
- bleed irregularly( the interval between them is more than 35 days or less than 21 days);
- blood from the vagina after sexual contact;
- release after the onset of menopause.
Bleeding, which began during menstruation, is divided into four types, among which:
- menorrhagia - profuse and prolonged menstruation;
- metrorrhagia - discharge of blood that occurs irregularly;
- menometrorrhagia - prolonged bleeding that occurs irregularly;
- polymenorrhoea - menstruation, started earlier than 21 one day from the beginning of the previous ones.
These symptoms indicate that bleeding has opened. In this case, you need to see a doctor for examination and diagnosis.
Abnormal discharge of blood from the vagina most often indicates a variety of diseases. Pathological uterine bleeding is divided into dysfunctional, organic and caused by diseases not associated with the genital area.
These include intense and prolonged bloody discharge associated with a disorder of the menstrual period. The main reasons are psychological and hormonal stress( abortion), overwork, antidepressant medication, unbalanced nutrition. Characteristic for girls during the establishment of regular menstruation and women with menopause. In both cases, there is an unstable ovarian function, resulting in an imbalance of female sex hormones. Such bleeding is divided into ovulatory and anovulatory.
In the first case, ovulation is preserved. Usually observed in women of reproductive age, can lead to inflammatory processes and adhesions in the small pelvis. This hormonal disorder is fraught with miscarriages and infertility.
The norm is only menstrual bleeding, in other cases it is a pathology of
Anovular bleeding occurs mainly in women during premenopause. This produces only estrogen, normal maturation of the egg is absent. The lack of progesterone leads to an increase in the endometrium and the risk of new growths, both benign and malignant. Such bleeding leads to the development of anemia with characteristic symptoms: weakness, tachycardia, hypotension, loss of strength, loss of appetite.
Causes of bleeding from the uterus
Organic bleeding can begin any day of the cycle. They are different in the nature of the discharge, duration, intensity. As a rule, proceed in a chronic form and can lead to exhaustion. The main causes are the following pathologies:
- inflammatory diseases of the appendages and uterus;
- uterine myoma;
- polyps of the endometrium;
- uterine cancer.
Treatment of uterine bleeding
Treatment depends on the cause of bleeding. If they are associated with a disease, then both medical therapy and surgical intervention can be indicated. With severe bleeding, it is necessary to stop the blood.
The examination and treatment of adolescents is conducted by doctors of various specialties: pediatrician, gynecologist, endocrinologist, neuropathologist, hematologist. They take blood for hormones, as well as carry out a general and biochemical analysis, prescribe an ultrasound. As a rule, they prescribe vitamins, a medicine for uterine contraction and drugs to reduce bleeding, and less often hormonal agents.
Video about the normal menstrual cycle:
In the reproductive age, a cleaning is usually carried out, during which the affected layer of the mucous membrane and thickened blood are removed from the uterine cavity, which leads to the stopping of bleeding. Conservative treatment includes haemostatic and uterine contracting agents, as well as hormonal drugs designed to prevent relapse, prevent neoplasm and normalize the menstrual cycle. At a fibroma, an endometriosis, a malignant tumor, a hyperplasia surgical intervention is shown.
For women who entered the premenopausal period, treatment is similar. At this age, bleeding is often associated with oncology, in which case the uterus is usually removed along with the ovaries.
Any uterine bleeding that occurs with menstruation, but differing in intensity, duration, color, smell and other signs, should be alerted. The reference to the doctor in this case is obligatory. Before this, it is necessary to limit physical activity, put a cold on the abdomen, drink tea from the nettle.