22Feb

Ectopic pregnancy: signs and symptoms

Any woman knows that pregnancy is not only joy and happiness, but also a huge responsibility, increased stress on the body, etc. All this applies even to normal, normally occurring pregnancy, not to mention various pathological conditions, when the health of a woman and her ability for further childbearing, but often life, depends on how soon the signs of an ectopic pregnancy are seen.

The most common of all abnormal pregnancies is its development not in the uterine cavity, but in an absolutely unintended place for the process-the fallopian tube, ovaries, and sometimes even in the abdominal cavity. Such a pathology is called an ectopic pregnancy and carries a direct threat to the life of a woman. The first thing to do when you find this pregnancy is to see a doctor.

A bit of anatomy: a fertilized egg must go through a certain path before entering the uterus and begin its growth and development there. This path passes through the fallopian tubes, and in most cases everything passes safely. However, for various reasons, a fertilized egg may not ascend from the ovary, and stop halfway - get stuck in the fallopian tube. In this case, it is very important that the diagnosis accurately states: either this is indeed an ectopic pregnancy and the patient needs urgent treatment, or there is a normal pregnancy at a very early stage, when the fetal egg has not yet completed its path, but also in the tubeis not going to linger.

In fact, this is quite difficult even for experienced and highly skilled gynecologists. The situation is complicated by the fact of irregular menstruation in a woman, due to which it is impossible to determine the approximate duration of pregnancy, and therefore - to be firmly sure at what stage of development it is. That is why it is important to know and be able to recognize the symptoms of pregnancy in order to prevent a fatal mistake and not to kill someone's life.

In particular, the following information should be carefully considered for women at risk;those with a higher probability of developing an ectopic pregnancy than most others:

  • Age over 35 years;
  • Presence of chronic inflammations of the genital organs;
  • Passed course of treatment of tubal infertility;
  • The passed course of treatment of hormonal infertility;
  • Endometriosis;
  • Congenital malformations of the uterus;
  • Congenital malformations of the uterine tube;
  • Cases of miscarriage in an anamnesis;
  • The presence of an intrauterine device.

The presence of one or more of these factors is a serious reason to remember all the signs that indicate the development of pregnancy in an unoccupied place and at the slightest suspicion of this pathology to immediately consult a doctor.

Signs of an ectopic pregnancy.

Unfortunately, a lot of complications are caused by the fact that this, rather serious pathology, does not have a clear clinical picture. As a rule, ectopic pregnancy can develop according to two "scenarios", each of which has its own peculiarities and its possible complications.

In the first case, the main threat is that to notice the first signs of of an abnormally developing pregnancy are impossible simply because they are completely absent. As a rule, the woman does not stop menstruating, there are not even the slightest failures in the cycle. There are no other signs characteristic of pregnancy: nausea, changes in taste preferences, engorgement of the mammary glands, drowsiness, etc. And if they are present, a rare woman will connect them with an ectopic pregnancy - the cycle is OK!In particular, the situation is worsening for women who use intrauterine spirals for contraception: they are completely sure of the impossibility of pregnancy, and therefore may miss even its obvious signs.

As a rule, in this case, signs of ectopic pregnancy appear even when the period exceeds several weeks, the uterine tube( if the pregnancy is tubular) does not withstand the increasing volumes of the fetal egg and is ruptured. The following symptoms indicate the rupture of the tube:

  • Acute pain in the lower abdomen
  • Obscuration
  • Bloody discharge not associated with the menstrual cycle
  • Possible temperature increase

If you develop such symptoms, you may have an ectopic pregnancy. In this case, any delay is not only a danger that a woman can no longer become a mother, but also a direct threat to her life. To keep the tube, even in time revealing an ectopic pregnancy, is difficult enough, and at a break it should be immediately removed. True, the probability of getting pregnant remains high even with one tube, but, we repeat, the account goes for a minute - medical assistance is required.

The situation is somewhat different when early signs of ectopic pregnancy in no way suggest a pathology and quite accurately repeat the classic picture of a normal pregnancy. Especially dangerous is the situation, if a woman was expecting a pregnancy and can not even assume that something is going on not quite as it should. First of all, menstruation disappears, of course, the next step is to buy a test to determine pregnancy at home. As a rule, the test is positive and the expectant mother calms down, waiting for a convenient moment to go to a women's consultation.

All this time, the classic signs of pregnancy continue to appear: mammary glands swell, drowsiness appears, a woman becomes irritable, her taste preferences may change. The explanation is quite simple: in her body, everything is the same as when an ordinary pregnancy occurs, so hormones behave, at first glance, is equivalent to a normal state.

A slightly better case is when the test shows a negative result when the menstruation is delayed. This may well be, because hCG, which appears in the body during pregnancy, is not so high in the pathological case, and the test may simply not respond to it. In this situation, any conscious woman will go to the doctor, because there is no menstruation, no pregnancy. Typically, the doctor prescribes a blood test for the same hCG, with an interval of 3-4 days. In the presence of normal pregnancy, the indices grow several fold and correspond to the expected time, whereas an increase in hCG in ectopic pregnancy is very insignificant. In this case, with the timely detection of pathology, there is no threat to life, and the threat to health is minimal.

The following conditions should force a woman to see a doctor immediately, because it is possible that this is the first signs of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Too meager or coming after a long delay of menstruation;
  • Severe pain in the lower abdomen on the background of delay in menstruation;
  • Bloody discharge from the vagina for a long time after the end of the next menstrual cycle;
  • Presence of classical signs of pregnancy with a negative pregnancy test;
  • Suspicion of pregnancy in the presence of a history of ectopic pregnancy or any pathology that provokes this deviation.

If a few decades ago to detect ectopic pregnancy could only be after the rupture of the tube, when medical intervention is already aimed only at saving the patient's life, then modern methods allow to reveal pathology in the third or fourth week. Most importantly - in time to pay attention to possible early signs of ectopic pregnancy and immediately seek medical advice.



Timely medical intervention is a guarantee that a woman in the near future will be able to conceive, bear and give birth to a healthy child, since the methods available to doctors today allow the pipe to be completely preserved while protecting the woman from negative consequences. Remember, time in this case is the worst adviser!