Inflammation of the hip joint( arthritis) is a serious disease that has different etiological causes. Its main danger in the destruction of articular surfaces, malnutrition of bone tissue and the development of complete immobility.
In children of childhood, arthritis can be specific in nature, it can be a manifestation of joint tuberculosis. You can treat this process only with special anti-TB drugs. Improper diagnosis leads to disability.
Features of the structure
The joint that connects the pelvic bones to the thigh is the largest and most powerful in the human body. It provides a load when moving, maintains balance.
The upper end of the femur ends with a ball-shaped head. It is 2/3 covered with cartilage, which softens blows and friction. From the side of the pelvis there is an anatomical depression - an acetabulum, also having cartilaginous protection. It almost completely immerses the head of the thigh. The connection is provided by very strong ligaments located around the joint.
Together with the tendons of the muscles they form a dense capsule. From the inside, it is covered with a tissue that produces synovial fluid for lubricating the articular surfaces and feeding the cartilage.
The junction is called "bowl-shaped or limited globular".Very large movements are possible in all directions.
What causes arthritis
Inflammation of the hip joint has a different origin, can develop in the tissues of the articular sac( bursitis) or tendons( tendinitis).The most common causes are:
- injuries, bruises;
- is too big for sports;
- metabolic disorders with a general lack of food in vitamins, protein;
- supercooling is local and general;
- loss of functions under low load, long period of immobility;
- getting into the joint of an acute or chronic infection;
- autoimmune process of destruction of own tissues in systemic diseases.
The severity of symptoms and the strength of inflammation in the hip joint depends on the protective reactions of the body, the level of immunity.
The doctor will see the changes shown on the right on the
chart on the X-ray. Clinical manifestations of
Different variants and localization within the joint are accompanied by small differences in the clinic.
Bursitis - inflammation of the synovium with the accumulation of a significant amount of fluid.
- at the beginning of the disease is concerned about soreness when walking on the stairs;
- severe pain inside the joint during movement, do not disappear at rest;
- at night even strengthened;
- is given to the buttocks;
- become more pronounced in the prone position on the side of the lesion.
Bursitis affects women athletes involved in running. In soft tissues, bone growths( osteophytes, spines) are found, which irritate the nerve endings.
Tendonitis( tendon inflammation) is typical of pain during movement. The disease also often occurs in athletes of men, women, children with a significant load on the joints. May damage one or both joints.
With purulent arthritis, there is a powerful "attack" of infection with damage to all tissues and cartilage. In case of progression, it is possible to switch to the surrounding fatty tissue with the formation of phlegmon. Infectious agents get inside when injured or delivered with blood from chronic infectious foci.
Symptoms: suddenly there is pain in the joint and high fever. The patient protects the joint as much as possible, pulling the hip toward him. Treatment should be started immediately. The disease contributes to the development of general sepsis.
Transient and reactive inflammation of
Reactive and transient arthritis occur against the background of acute infectious diseases. Children of preschool and school age are more often affected. Symptoms appear quickly and unexpectedly( against a background of general recovery).Inflammation affects all the components of the joint, skin in the hip, internal organs. Children complain of acute pain in the groin, limp when walking.
For tuberculous coxitis, typically gradual development, pain and stitching. Often simultaneously, a defeat of the respiratory system is detected.
Gout is more affected by older people, more often men. Children are not ill with this disease. In the hip joint, urates( salts of uric acid) are deposited. Patients are concerned about intense pain attacks at night, burning sensation inside, redness of the skin.
In rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis often occurs in adolescence or up to 40 years of age. More characteristic lesion of small joints and spine, less likely to spread and to such large as the hip. Typical morning stiffness due to increased pain. Skin reddened, hot to the touch.
Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and examination results.
The blood tests show leukocytosis, acceleration of ESR, c-reactive protein, tissue decay products.
On the roentgenogram, changes in contours of articular surfaces, accumulation of excess fluid can be seen. Asymmetry when compared with a healthy joint.
ultrasound and computed tomography can determine the extent of damage to the cartilage and bone tissue.
For a practical physician to suspect a problem in the hip joint, one can look at a typical morbidity when examining a patient, if one suggests bending the knee in the supine position on the back and tilting the leg aside.
Treatment of hip inflammation can not be entrusted to an amateur. Various national recipes in their majority cause warming up of a place of defeat. This increases the role of the infection and can cause suppuration.
To remove inflammation in case of tuberculous lesion, it is possible only with the help of prolonged intake of special anti-tuberculosis drugs. To prevent the destruction of the joint, children are treated for a long time and live in anti-tuberculosis sanatoriums. The joint is immobilized by tight bandaging. It is possible to move only on crutches.
Gouty arthritis will require a strict restrictive diet.
When purulent arthritis is used antibiotics intramuscularly and intraarticularly after pumping pus.
With persistent pain in an acute period in the hospital, novocain blockades are performed.
Reactive and rheumatoid arthritis is treated with courses of hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs. For anesthesia, the drugs of the Nimesulid group, Delagil, are used. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed in the form of ointments( for rubbing and compresses), are administered intramuscularly and inside the joint( Indomethacin, Diclofenac).
Most trauma doctors consider it necessary to prescribe:
- chondroprotectors for cartilage restoration and bone surface protection( Rumalon, Arteparon);
- drugs that improve the blood supply of the joint bag( Nikospan, Trental).
According to the indications, physiotherapeutic procedures, massage, mud applications are prescribed.
If the destruction of the surfaces has reached a dimension that can not be restored, it is recommended that an operative replacement for an artificial joint is recommended.
You can not independently treat coxite. The goal - to keep active movements - requires proper attitude to medical appointments, patient patient care by close people.
- Features of the structure
- Why arthritis occurs
- Clinical manifestations