Orthoses include orthopedic devices of many types. They are used for various diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system. In this connection, orthoses for the spine, joints of the upper limb and joints of the lower limb are distinguished. The last group includes an orthosis on the ankle joint.
What is an orthosis? It is a functional device that maximally repeats the contours of the anatomical area( in this case - the ankle joint), on which it is superimposed. In appearance, the orthosis for the ankle, as a rule, looks like a sock, a golf or a boot. In many cases, fingers are left open. Fixation of the orthosis on the ankle is carried out by means of fasteners, lacing, belts, "Velcro" and other elements. Various materials are produced for the manufacture of orthosis: dense elastic synthetic or cotton fabrics, metal, plastic, wood( currently rarely used).
Depending on the purpose of orthoses, there are:
- Prophylactic - to prevent damage to the ankle;
- Treatment and rehabilitation - for various diseases and injuries, as well as to eliminate their consequences;
- Functional - used constantly to maximize the movement of the movements with irreversible changes in the joint.
The simplest elastic orthosis, which looks like a sock
Depending on these tasks, orthoses can have different degrees of rigidity:
- Soft orthosis - has the appearance of a cloth removable bandage.
- Semi-rigid orthosis - equipped with straps or cords, playing the role of elastic bandage. But it can have stiffening elements in the form of metal or plastic inserts, plates.
- Rigid orthosis - equipped with plastic inserts and elastic tires. Thanks to the special arrangement and arrangement of these stiffening elements, a reliable fixation of the joint itself, the foot and the adjacent shin parts is created.
What kind of orthosis is most preferable? Everything depends on the nature of the existing pathology. For example, soft products are used for preventive purposes, and semi-rigid and rigid are indicated for certain diseases and functional disorders of the ankle.
One of the most important principles of treatment of diseases and ankle injury is the maximum elimination of the load, ensuring rest for this joint. Proceeding from this, the wearing of the orthosis on the ankle joint is indicated under the following pathological conditions:
- Inflammatory and degenerative-dystrophic processes - arthritis and arthrosis of the ankle;
- Damage to ligaments and Achilles tendons - micro-ruptures( tensions), partial and complete ruptures;
- Restorative period after fractures of the ankles, bones of the lower leg and the stop bones, including those accompanied by dislocations and subluxations of the foot;
- Secondary instability of the ankle, due to extraarticular pathology - overweight, flat feet, valgus deformation of the 1st toe;
- In children - rickets and some congenital anomalies( dysplasia) of the ankle;
- Paralyzes and paresis( partial paralysis) of the lower leg and foot due to disorders of cerebral circulation( strokes);
- Postoperative period after various reconstructive and restorative operations on the ankle;
- Prevention of ankle injury in athletes and persons engaged in heavy physical labor.
Symptoms of ankle joint rupture
Positive effect of orthosis is expressed in the following:
- Stabilizes the joint;
- The mechanical stress on the joint structures decreases;
- Muscles, ligaments and tendons are strengthened;
- The pain and swelling of soft tissues decrease or disappear completely;
- Eventually - the volume of movements in the ankle is widening.
It should be noted that orthosis was developed and implemented in medical practice relatively recently. Until then, immobilization( immobilization) of the ankle was carried out by bandages using a normal or elastic bandage, plaster bandages.
Of course, orthosis has a number of undeniable advantages both before bandaging and before gypsum. In comparison with bandage, orthosis creates a more reliable fixation. And when plastering, the area of the ankle joint is completely closed. This makes it difficult to access the joint for therapeutic activities.
However, the use of an orthosis on the ankle is not always justified. This device can not be used with open fractures with the presence of bleeding wounds. Yes, and fresh closed fractures at first it is better to immobilize with a plaster bandage, and apply the orthosis already during the consolidation( adhesion) of bone fragments. But the allegations that the orthosis is supposedly leading to the atrophy of the calf muscles is absolutely groundless. On the contrary, the use of this device strengthens the muscles. The main thing is to choose the orthosis correctly.
Adjustable Orthosis ORLETT HAS-317
In addition, orthoses can also be classified according to one type - by manufacture type. In this regard, the following are distinguished:
- Serial - these are already finished products. It is inexpensive to buy them at the pharmacy or at a specialized center selling orthopedic products.
- Prefabricated-modular - these orthoses have a rather complex design. Collect them directly on the patient's foot.
- Individual - they are made on request for a specific patient, using a plaster cast of the shank and foot. The price of these products is quite high. But you can make a clearer fixation of the shin and foot.
What type of product is most preferable? Again, it all depends on the quality and the indications. Children's orthosis should take into account the features of the growing bones of the lower leg and foot. Therefore, it is better that it was made to order. Although orthlet orlett in no way inferior to orthoses, made to order. Made from natural cotton fabrics, equipped with lacing and stiffening ribs, they reliably fix the joint. And the degree of fixation of these products can be adjusted, which is very convenient with a gradual expansion of the volume of movements in the ankle after the injuries suffered.
Is it possible to make an orthosis with one's own hands from improvised materials? Can. True, for this it is necessary in one person to be an orthopedic doctor and a master in the manufacture of orthoses. Well, and, of course, modern equipment and related materials should also be at hand. Is this possible in reality? Of course not. Therefore, it is necessary to select, purchase and wear orthosis only according to medical recommendations.