Any changes in the composition of the blood have an important diagnostic value. Thus, the morphological changes in erythrocytes may concern their size, shape, and nature of staining. When performing a general blood test, it may be found that the red blood cells are slightly colored. In this case, the red blood cells look like rings, that is, at the edges - a dark rim, and the central part - light.
This change is called hypochromia. It is caused by a low hemoglobin content in the erythrocytes and, as a result, a reduced color index in the total blood test, which is less than 0.8.In this case, we are talking about the development of hypochromic anemia, which is not an independent nosological form. This term is used as a common name for all varieties of anemia caused by such a change in red blood cells.
Hypochromia is associated with impaired hemoglobin synthesis. This happens with iron deficiency, as well as chronic lead poisoning, hereditary diseases, in which the exchange of iron and hemoglobin synthesis( thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia) is disturbed. There are several varieties of hypochromic anemia:
- iron deficiency with an absolute decrease in iron;
- iron-saturated - iron is normal, but it does not participate in the synthesis of hemoglobin;
- iron redistribution;
- of mixed type.
The clinical picture of hypochromic anemia depends on the level of hemoglobin, the level of which is judged on the severity of the disease. For all forms, symptoms such as weakness, irritability, pale skin, dizziness, flies before the eyes, decreased ability to work, palpitations are characteristic.
How is hypochromia determined?
Pathology is determined during a general analysis, during which the blood is taken from the finger on an empty stomach. In this case, not only the level of hemoglobin( normal in adults - 120-160 g / l) is taken into account, but also the color index of blood, whose norm is in the range from 0.85 to 1.15.Hypochromia occurs when the CPU is below 0.8.The severity of the pathology is determined by the level of hemoglobin:
- exceeds 90 g / l - 1 degree;
- is in the range of 70 to 90 g / l - 2 degrees;
- less than 70 g / l - grade 3.
Iron deficiency anemia
Clinical blood test for children
Hypochromia of this type is more common. The majority of patients( up to 95%) are women aged 15 to 50 years. This kind of anemia arises in the case of excess iron consumption compared to its intake into the body. This happens with chronic bleeding, with unbalanced nutrition, as well as in physiological processes, such as pregnancy and lactation.
It is determined by the following diagnostic criteria in the blood test:
- color index less than 0.8;
- red blood cell hypochromia( dark color along the edges and light in the center);
- low serum iron.
After taking iron-containing preparations in patients, the well-being and laboratory parameters improve.
Iron deficiency anemia
In this pathology, the iron content in the blood is normal, but its absorption, and hence the formation of hemoglobin, is impaired. Hypochromia of this kind develops with chronic intoxication with chemicals or some medications. Diagnosed by the following features:
- color index is lowered;
- erythrocytes are hypochromic;
- is the normal level of serum iron.
In case of hypochromia, the erythrocytes take the form of rings - dark around the edges and light in the center of
. The intake of iron-containing preparations in this case does not give the desired effect.
This pathology is caused by the accumulation of excess iron during the rapid disintegration of red blood cells. Such anemia develops, as a rule, with tuberculosis, endocarditis, a number of purulent infections. The diagnostic features include the following:
- reduced hemoglobin level;
- red blood cell hypochromia;
- the level of iron is normal.
In this case, there is no result after taking medications with iron.
Therapy is primarily to eliminate the causes of hypochromia. It is important to cure the disease, which led to a decrease in hemoglobin levels. Specific treatment is due to the type of anemia.
In case of iron deficiency, iron-containing preparations are shown, and a special diet with a predominance of meat, liver and other foods rich in iron is also recommended. Especially a lot of iron in the suit, garnets, dried apricots, apples, beets. As a rule, a long course of treatment is needed. Reception of preparations proceeds approximately about half a year.
Video about the causes and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia:
When iron-bound form is prescribed vitamin B6.In the case of iron-redistributive anemia, the diseases that caused its development are treated, as well as maintenance therapy with vitamins. In these two types of illness, iron-containing preparations should not be taken, otherwise it may lead to an accumulation of excessive amounts.
In severe cases, intravenous administration of iron, vitamins, and infusion of erythrocyte mass may be required.
If the cause of the pathology is bleeding, it is necessary to stop it. In this case, both conservative and surgical treatment may be required.
Detection of hypochromia in a general blood test allows early diagnosis of different types of hypochromic anemia, and this is important for effective treatment.