Cases of poisoning by low-quality products, drugs, alcohol, poisonous fungi and chemicals can occur in every family or in a team. The first thing you need to do in such cases is to seek medical help.
If it is not possible to receive it immediately, first aid to a person with signs of poisoning is from close people. They should know what to do in case of poisoning, in order to reduce its consequences for the life and health of the injured person.
- 1 Food poisoning
- 1 Food poisoning
- 2 Types of intestinal infection
- 3 Emergency measures for poisoning
- 4 Prevention of food poisoning
- 5 Poisoning by poisonous mushrooms
- 6 Alcohol poisoning
- 7 Drug poisoning
- 8 First aid for poisoning in children
- 9 Urgent measures for poisoning in pregnant women
If ingested poorly prepared or improperly stored food occurstons of food poisoning. It can be of infectious origin, when the symptoms of poisoning are caused by the products of the vital activity of viruses, protozoa and bacteria, and non-infectious origin, when poisons, chemical compounds enter the food.
Signs of food poisoning appear after a short time. These include:
- Temperature rise up to 39-40С.
- Loss of appetite, general malaise.
- Vomiting, excessive vomiting.
- Severe pain in the epigastric region, often spasmodic.
- Dizziness, general weakness.
- Lowering blood pressure.
- Abundant salivation.
- Signs of dehydration.
- Visual impairment, the appearance of hallucinations in severe cases.
- In case of complications: paralysis, paresis, loss of consciousness.
With the timely provision of medical care, these manifestations gradually decrease. After three to four days, there is a significant improvement in the general condition. In severe cases, food poisoning can result in coma and death.
Food poisoning is particularly dangerous for those whose body is weakened by chronic diseases, for children, pregnant women and the elderly.
Types of intestinal infection
- Salmonellosis - is caused by salmonella, enters the body with infected meat, eggs. Typical symptoms are diarrhea, febrile condition, pain and abdominal cramps.
- Dysentery - caused by a shigella, enters the body through unwashed hands. Strikes the large intestine. Symptoms - diarrhea with an admixture of blood, fever.
- Listeriosis - is caused by listeria, enters the body through conservation, raw meat, food. Symptoms are similar to those of influenza, complications are meningitis.
- Cholera - caused by cholera vibrio, gets infected with water, seafood and food. It affects the small intestine, symptoms - vomiting, diarrhea, rapid dehydration of the body.
- Intestinal bacillus - enters the body with poorly processed foods. Symptoms - fever, acute pain in the abdomen, high fever.
Before a person who has been poisoned by low-quality food will receive medical care, it can take a long time. In this time interval, emergency measures must be taken to release the body from the source of poisoning, to prevent the rapid spread of toxins in the digestive tract, in the blood and in the nervous system.
Emergency Measures for Poisoning
You should not take drugs to stop diarrhea without consulting a doctor. Diarrhea is the body's reaction to the action of toxins, so the intestine tries to get rid of them. Uncontrolled use of antidiarrhoeal drugs leads to the fact that toxins, remaining in the intestine, begin through its walls to be actively absorbed into the blood, and will aggravate the already serious condition of the affected person.
- Rinsing of the stomach. To do this, you need to drink 2.5-3 liters of water, in which soda or a weak solution of manganese is dissolved, cause vomiting before the appearance in vomitive discharge of pure water without any admixture of blood and mucus.
- Make an enema with the help of a mug of Esmarch with a solution of manganese pink, or a solution of salt( 1 teaspoon per liter of water).
- Take enterosorbents: Smecta, Enterosgel, activated charcoal.
- Restore the loss of fluid with the use of Regidron, broth of rose hips, chamomile pharmacy. For the prevention of dehydration is recommended the abundant drinking of mineral water without gas, green tea.
Prevention of food poisoning
It is necessary to carefully handle and store food correctly, do not use them after the expiry date. Observe the rules of hygiene during cooking and eating, wash your hands. Do not buy marinades, homemade canned food, fish in spontaneous markets. Water should be boiled before use, or carried through a filter.
You should not buy and eat food with an unpleasant odor, different from the usual taste and smell, the appearance in the liquid products of turbidity, sediment, gas bubbles.
Poisoning with poisonous mushrooms
The insidiousness of this poisoning lies in the fact that the symptoms may appear not immediately, but after a few days, when the consequences may be irreversible. You can get poisoning and so-called conditionally edible mushrooms.
They are safe after appropriate treatment, but can be poisonous in raw form and in the form of pickles, marinades. Symptoms of poisoning with mushrooms can appear within 5-6 hours after poisoning. These are the symptoms:
- severe diarrhea( up to 15 times daily)
- profuse urination
- intense thirst
- increased sweating
- strong salivation
All these symptoms may worsen with alcohol. If the poisoning occurred with such mushrooms as thin swine, stitches, false honey agarics, pale toadstool, galerin, white amanita, after apparent relief jaundice arises. The poisoned person is disrupted by a liver function that is incompatible with life.
With the timely application of medical care, almost all such poisonings are successfully treated, in addition to poisoning with a pale toadstool, against the venom of which there are no adequate protective measures.
When poisoning with inedible cobweb species, symptoms of poisoning can occur 5 to 14 days after ingestion of the poison into the body. The main impact in this form of poisoning by fungi occurs on the kidneys, which cease to function, after which a fatal outcome occurs. Symptoms of spiderweb poisoning:
- increase in the amount of excreted urine
- stomach pain
- dry mouth
When poisoning with varieties of fly agarics, hallucinations, delusions, an altered state of consciousness bordering on insanity can appear. First aid in poisoning with poisonous mushrooms:
- Induce vomiting with gastric lavage.
- Take enterosorbents( Carbolen, Enterosgel, white clay, Smecta).
- Lay the victim, give him a strong sweet tea, put a heating pad at his feet.
In order not to be exposed to the risk of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, you do not need to collect or cook mushrooms, the safety of which has to be doubted. You can not collect old mushrooms, in the bodies of which the process of protein breakdown began. Collected mushrooms must be immediately processed, otherwise they become unsuitable for food.
Spreading a surrogate, intemperance in the use of alcoholic beverages can easily lead to poisoning. Its complication can be fatal. Signs of poisoning can be:
- loss of consciousness
- cardiac dysfunction
- severe vomiting
- blindness due to optic nerve damage
- shortness of breath
- rapid heartbeat
Emergency measures that can be applied to a person who has been poisoned with alcohol do not differ from activities for any poisoning. It is necessary to reduce the concentration of alcohol in the stomach. To do this, induce vomiting, wash the stomach with a solution of soda or manganese in a weak concentration. Before the arrival of emergency medical care, the victim is taken to fresh air, freed from tight clothing, a tie, a scarf.
To relieve the condition, you can apply a cold compress, ice, to his head. On the back of the neck, calves, feet, you can put mustard plasters, give sniffs of ammonia, they rub their whiskey. To increase the effect, they give you a solution of ammonia in a cold water( 10 drops of ammonia in a glass of water).These measures should significantly improve the condition of the victim.
What should I do for alcohol and food poisoning? Answer video:
You can put an equals sign between the words "medicine" and "chemical substance", and this will not be a mistake. Drug poisoning most often occurs with an overdose, when the dose is incorrectly calculated, or the instructions for use to accelerate the effect are not observed.
Self-medication is a very dangerous tactic, especially if it is applied to children, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and chronic patients. Depending on the pharmaceutical group to which the medicine belongs, the symptoms of poisoning and first aid will differ from each other. Drug groups and danger of poisoning by them:
- Cardiovascular drugs - overdose can cause tachycardia, arrhythmia, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, visual impairment, hallucinations. First aid - induce vomiting, drinking about 1.5 liters of salted water.
- Antipyretic and analgesic - drowsiness, loss of consciousness, cardiac arrest, respiratory activity. First aid - in addition to gastric lavage, enterosorbents can be taken, with cardiac arrest and respiration immediately begin artificial respiration and indirect cardiac massage.
- Barbiturates, soothing - act on the nervous system. May cause dry mouth, cramps, the appearance of tremors in the limbs, paralysis of respiratory activity, impaired coordination of movements. First aid is similar to the above.
- Antihistamines - in the fight against allergy manifestations a person can unconsciously increase the dose for the speedy relief of his condition. Symptoms of overdose are drowsiness, weakness, half-unconsciousness, mental overexcitation, hallucinations. First aid - washing the stomach and intestines with an enema or salt laxative. Even if the condition of the victim has improved after the measures taken, it must be shown to the doctor. It is desirable to keep the packaging from the medicine to assess the scale of the poisoning.
Features of first aid for poisoning in children
For anyone, poisoning is not as dangerous as it is for children. Together with vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration starts, which is very dangerous, and can lead to serious consequences in a short time. Body weight in children is low, and, therefore, the concentration of poisonous substance in their body is initially higher than that of adults. The very first thing you need to do is to seek medical help.
Symptoms of poisoning in children are similar to those seen in adults, only they occur more quickly and are carried by children much harder. While waiting for the doctor, emergency measures should be taken:
- Try to rinse the stomach and induce vomiting by drinking a lot of boiled water with a weak solution of manganese.
- If vomiting can not be caused - press the root of the tongue with a finger or a teaspoon.
- To give the baby absorbents: Smectu, activated charcoal( 10 kg of weight - 1 tablet), Regidron for the prevention of dehydration.
- Put the baby on its side to avoid choking vomit, cover with a blanket.
- Give an abundant drink( sweet tea, water).
- If the temperature does not increase, do not take medication without consulting a doctor, you can wipe the baby with a tissue moistened with water, acidified with vinegar.
Urgent measures for poisoning in pregnant women
Poisoning in pregnant women is dangerous due to their complications specific to this condition:
- Dehydration can lead to a thickening of the blood, and as a consequence, a risk of blood clots in the veins of the legs.
- Reducing the total volume of blood from dehydration leads to the risk of miscarriage due to the accumulation of oxytocin.
- Diarrhea and vomiting deprive the body of a woman the right substances, vitamins, minerals.
- There is a danger of toxins entering through the placental barrier.
All appointments to a pregnant woman are made only by the attending physician. The first measures of emergency assistance can be the reception of sorbents, it is safest to take Smect. Washing stomach to pregnant women is not recommended because of the threat of miscarriage.
Replenishment of lost fluid is the most important task. It is necessary to drink more often, although in small portions. It can be mineral water without gas, sweet tea.
Poisoning can be caused by various reasons. In time and properly rendered first aid can save the victim life and health. Depending on the causes of poisoning, the symptoms and tactics of care differ. After the measures taken, it is necessary to get a doctor's consultation.
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