Cancer of the tongue is a malignant tumor that affects the body of the tongue and destroys its tissues. Like any cancer, cancer of the language requires competent and immediate treatment. The difficulty is that at first it can be practically asymptomatic, or the symptoms can be confused with signs of another disease: angina, caries.
- 1 Cancer symptoms of
- 2 language Causes and diagnosis of
- 2 language cancer
- 4 disease course
- 5 cancer cancer treatment Consequences of language cancer and its prevention
- 6 Language varieties of
tongue Cancer symptoms of
Consider the main symptoms of cancer of the tongue:
- Pain in the tongue and mouth as a whole. This sign can occur both at the last stage of the disease, and at the initial stage. At first, the pain is not strong, but at 3-4 stages of cancer the pain becomes very palpable. It hurts not only when swallowing and speaking, but also in a calm state. If the metastases have already reached the lymph nodes, the pain can be in the neck, ear shells, head areas.
- Ulcers. Quite often in cancer language, patients complain of the presence of a painful sore in the tongue. Even before going to the doctor, patients start to treat it themselves with various ointments and lotions, taking a dangerous disease for a simple inflammation of the bite( or as they say, in the people, the mite).However, despite this, the ulcer does not heal. Usually, ulcers are small, not more than 1 cm, but can develop during the course of the disease.
- Sealing part of the tongue. This symptom is found on palpation and examination of the dentist. Part of the tongue becomes hard to touch, loses sensitivity. The mucous membrane in this place can be thinned.
- A sharp smell from the mouth. If the disease is at a fairly neglected stage, the tissues of the tongue die in the place where the cancerous tumor( ulcer) is located. In this case, the smell from the mouth is even more than unpleasant.
- Difficulty opening the mouth. If the cancer node is on the back of the tongue, this will make speech, swallowing food, saliva and any manipulation of the tongue and jaw altogether more difficult. Cancer, as is known, promotes the growth of metastases to other parts of the body, while the throat, the sky, and lymph nodes can also suffer. The muscles, skin, teeth are destroyed.
- Difficulty in eating. The tumor can reach a large size, cause swelling of the tissues, as well as painful sensations when swallowing. At the start of the stage, eating is completely impossible.
- Swelling of the neck and face. This is a sign of swelling of tissues, inflammatory processes provoked by cancer cells. Lymph nodes in the neck can also become denser and sore.
Causes and Diagnosis of
language. Cancer of the tongue is 6 times less common in the fairer sex than in men. It is difficult to say with what such statistics are connected. Perhaps men are more likely to be addicted to bad habits or to dangerous occupations. It would seem, to detect a cancer of the tongue is not difficult, because it is on the surface and can be clearly seen. But unfortunately, when it is already clearly visible and probed - this is far from the initial stage.
Not always a person goes to the doctor with minor pains, seals and sores. Sometimes a doctor can incorrectly diagnose, because externally the cancerous tumor looks like an inflammatory process from a mechanical injury or a symptom of a purulent sore throat. The doctor must identify the presence of hereditary complications, collect anamnesis, and also conduct instrumental examination with the help of mirrors, if required. The presence of metastases is determined with the help of biopsy of the lymph node, CT, MRI of the brain. About how much the tumor has grown, the result of ultrasound will tell. It is also necessary to carry out a cytological analysis of the tumor. What can lead to such a terrible disease as a cancer of the tongue?
- Systematic smoking and alcohol abuse. Many do not believe that smoking can lead to cancer of the tongue, believe that this is a myth for intimidating smoking teenagers. However, the reality is that it is the carcinogens released from the smoke of the cigarette that provoke the development of this disease. And alcohol significantly aggravates their effect and increases the risk of cancer in 2 times.
- Constant trauma of the mucous membrane of the tongue. A place that is constantly traumatized becomes potentially dangerous, as well as accessible to bacteria and infections. This concerns the constant biting of the tongue in the same place, damage to the mucosa of the tooth's edge, or a defective denture.
- Chronic viral infection caused by human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV.All of the above affects the development of cancer cells and requires special attention and observation, as well as systematic examination.
- Hereditary predisposition. Of course, this does not mean that if one of your relatives has had cancer, then now you can not avoid it either. One has only to remember that there is a potential danger, therefore it is important to avoid provoking factors and maintain the body in shape.
The course of the disease
The disease can have various symptoms, but the development of the disease is always about the same. In the course of the disease, three stages are distinguished:
- The initial stage. It can occur in three different forms: ulcerative, nodular and papillary. The ulcer form is more common than others and proceeds more slowly. Nodular form manifests itself in the form of seals on the body of the tongue, the so-called cancerous nodules. The papillary form is characterized by the presence of outgrowths in the tongue. They are usually dense, light in color. The initial stage sometimes proceeds absolutely asymptomatically, can be accompanied by the appearance of bright spots in the tongue, which can be confused with plaque, seals or redness. Lymph nodes under the jaw can increase, sometimes they become painful when feeling.
- Stage of cancer development. At this stage, numerous symptoms begin to manifest, such as intense pain, giving to the temporal region and ears, bad breath, salivation. Pain may not even be with a fairly large tumor. They are manifested individually. Ulcers can be either flat or in the form of cracks. The crevice form of the tumor, as a rule, has a more malignant character. At the same stage, there is difficulty in swallowing, partial numbness in the tissues of the tongue, sore throat, like with angina, the inability to clearly pronounce sounds, the tongue can bleed.
- Launched stage of the cancer of the tongue. At this stage, the cancer has already spread enough and began to actively destroy the nearest tissues. Cancer of the back of the tongue is more malignant than the cancer of the anterior part, it is much more difficult to cure. Cancer cells multiply rapidly, there are distant metastases in the bones, brain, lungs.
In some cases, the disease progresses quickly, for the cancer of the tongue is generally characterized by rapid growth, so it is important to do the survey in time, correctly diagnose and begin treatment. The earlier the disease is detected, the more likely to achieve a positive result. Especially do not put yourself a diagnosis through the Internet, comparing yourself with pictures. It is better to trust a professional, only he will be able to deliver a correct and accurate diagnosis.
Often, the cancer of the language is preceded by various diseases that cause thinning of the tongue's mucous membrane, such as leukokeratoses, ulcers, tongue cracks, hemangiomas.
Treatment of cancer of the tongue
Treatment is prescribed depending on the stage of the disease and the general condition of the body. Any cancer is very difficult to cure, so it is extremely important to follow all the doctor's recommendations and be examined regularly, even if the disease has managed to be defeated. Treatment of cancer of the tongue is possible, and it can go without complications if the diagnosis is delivered on time and correctly. Of course, the mood of the patient, his general state of health and his desire to fulfill all the doctor's recommendations play a big role. Inaction and depression leading to it can significantly worsen the situation.
The most common treatment for cancer of the tongue is using complex therapies. Treatment of radiation therapy is used as a separate method, and part of the complex therapy. Radiation therapy is a local effect on cancer cells by ion radiation. At the beginning of the disease, contact gamma-therapy is usually used, in the last stages - remote( in a specially designated room).Separately, radiation therapy can be effective if there is no metastasis. However, with radiotherapy, healthy cells die, and a person can be burned.
Chemotherapy is an aggressive method of treatment, which consists in taking chemotherapy drugs that kill cancer cells. Essentially, this is the introduction of toxic substances into the body intravenously or intramuscularly. These substances affect all cells of the body, but the young cells that are most likely to die are killed first. Of course, side effects are possible. To give the body to recover, chemotherapy is carried out by courses.
In particularly severe disease, surgical intervention is possible. In the initial manifestation of a cancer of the cancer of the tongue, excision of parts or organs of the oral cavity is used. If the percentage of metastases in nearby organs is high enough, they resort to removing the entire area affected by the tumor. Usually, the surgical method is used if the hearth is not attacked and if the bottom of the oral cavity is affected by the tumor.
If there are metastases in the lymph nodes under the jaw, then no sooner than 2 weeks after the removal of the tumor itself, the Krajl operation is performed. It consists in the removal of lymph nodes with the help of a special technique, which is considered the best in this field at the moment.
Consequences of language cancer and its prevention
The exact prescription that you need to do to avoid cancer is not. However, the general strengthening of the body, exercise, healthy lifestyle will not prevent anyone. This will reduce the likelihood of oncological diseases. Try not to burn yourself with hot food or liquid, do not injure the mucous membrane of the mouth. You also need to carefully monitor oral hygiene: brush your teeth at least twice a day, but do not damage the gums, so as not to cause their inflammation.
It is important to clean your teeth and tongue too. Caries, tartar, inflammation and bleeding gums should be avoided. It is also necessary to select high-quality dentures, monitor the processing of seals after their installation, treat tooth chips. In short, the more often you visit the dentist, the better. A doctor can replace tumors in time on the tongue or in the sky and send them to an oncologist. The consequences can be either after the illness itself or after the treatment:
- Removal of the part or complete amputation of the tongue. This is an extreme measure, applied only in cases of particularly severe disease. The percentage of operations is not so great, often modern medicine allows this to be avoided.
- Weakened body after radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The consequences of cancer treatment can be very severe.
- Immunity is markedly reduced, so during the period of treatment you should try to avoid infections. From chemotherapy can suffer heart, liver, kidneys, hair fall out, spoiled nails, teeth.
- Difficulty pronunciation. Already at the initial stage, there are problems with diction, in the case of surgical intervention, they persist for life. It is advisable to consult a speech therapist. Completely it does not fix the matter, but it will help make the speech more understandable.
- Distortion of taste sensations. Part of the language can be dumb, taste changes or disappear altogether. Sometimes this symptom persists even after the end of treatment.
- Lethal outcome. Of course, the most frightening and sad outcome of an oncological disease is death.
Despite the fact that progress does not stand still and medicine is constantly making new discoveries, completely no one has ever managed to defeat cancer. Sometimes the tumor is inoperable, the body rejects the treatment, all this inevitably leads to sad consequences.
Cancer can affect various parts of the tongue. There are 3 varieties of cancer of the tongue:
- Cancer of the root of the tongue stands on the second line in the frequency of occurrence( among varieties of cancer of the tongue).Diagnosing it is not so simple, because the root of the tongue does not lend itself to palpation and is poorly visible. The patient seems to have a sore throat, as with a cold, there are unpleasant sensations during swallowing. However, in addition to pain, there are other symptoms: smell from the mouth, increase and soreness of the lymph nodes, bleeding ulcers. Cancer of the root of the tongue proceeds quickly and aggressively enough. A tumor can affect not only the tongue itself, but also the auditory nerve, cachexia develops over time.
- Cancer of the lower surface of the tongue is not common. Usually it is accompanied by build-ups, seals or sores on the lower part of the tongue, and also the lower jaw. The tumor grows into muscle tissue. Pain is felt on the body of the tongue, in the lower jaw, head, neck. Tumors are usually of an infiltrative character.
- Cancer of the body of the tongue. This is the most common variety. It is easy to see at a dental examination. At first, sores and spots in the tongue can be confused with ordinary inflammation or mechanical damage. The tumor can be located on the tip or lateral surface of the tongue, and also spread over the entire surface. If the sores are on the side, in the last stages the possible immobility of the tongue.
There are three forms of cancer of the tongue, mentioned above:
- Ulcerous form is accompanied by the appearance of non-healing sores on the surface of the tongue. They can be small in size, bleed periodically.
- Infiltrative form - the appearance of dense formations in the body of the tongue. They can be painful, but pain can be absent.
- Papillary form - the formation of papillomas on the body of the tongue. They have a papillary surface, can be dense or soft.
Depending on how the growth grows, there are 2 varieties of cancer of the tongue. Exophytic tumor protrudes into the lumen of the oral cavity, outwardly it resembles a tubercle or an excrescence. The endophytic tumor grows inside the body of the tongue, it is more like a seal.
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