Some diseases are called childhood diseases, since they affect children. One of these diseases is rubella. And what are the symptoms of this disease? What treatment is required?
- What is it?
- How can I get infected?
- Manifestations of
- How to treat?
- Rubella in pregnancy
What is it?
Rubella is a contagious disease of a viral nature. Rubella virus in the external environment, most of the time it dies, especially when exposed to direct sunlight. In the room, the virus is active for several hours. Most often the disease affects children between the ages of 1-2 to 10-12 years, but adults can also get sick. Symptoms of rubella are characteristic and rather obvious. In most cases, the disease is easily transferred, but sometimes the course is complicated.
If the disease was transferred once, then the body produces persistent immunity, which persists throughout life.
The incidence rate is highest in the spring and winter periods, but the highest number of cases is usually recorded in the spring months( from March to May).The risk of infection of children rises in groups, that is, in schools or kindergartens.
How can I get infected?
Rubella is transmitted exclusively by airborne droplets, and the main vector of the virus is a person, so the disease can not be transmitted by animals or insects. If we take into account the fact that the virus does not live for long in the external environment, then the contact-household way of infection can practically be excluded. But the fetus can get infected during the period of intrauterine development. At the same time, the child will allocate active viruses to the environment for half a year after birth, sometimes even longer.
Getting to the upper respiratory tract, the virus reaches the lymph nodes, and it is there, according to scientists, the multiplication and release of toxins and products of life begins, which then enter the bloodstream and spread unhindered throughout the body.
Close and prolonged contact is required for infection, so that if a fleeting encounter occurs, the risk of infection is almost zero. But if the patient communicates with another person for a long time, then in the absence of immunity the probability of infection will approach 100%, since the susceptibility to the virus in all people is the same, with the initial penetration of the virus into the body, immunity can not resist it.
The incubation period of the disease can last on average 2-3 weeks, sometimes it decreases to 7-10 days or increases to 25-27 days. That is, from the moment the virus enters the body to the manifestations, it can take as long as three weeks.
It's amazing that even if the symptoms are not yet available and the person does not know that he is sick, he may well be contagious. The matter is that viruses start to be allocated by the person approximately for the second week of an incubation( for 5-10 days before characteristic displays).And the allocation lasts a week after the symptoms are no longer present, and the person feels healthy. That is why rubella in children usually occurs in the form of epidemiological outbreaks that have a long period.
Before starting treatment of the disease, it is important to identify and differentiate its symptoms. They can be different and depend on the course of the disease. In some, the disease proceeds in an easy form, others have a more severe and obvious course. But in any case, the signs are quite characteristic, you can determine them even from the photo.
We list the possible manifestations that can accompany rubella:
- In some cases, the first signs may appear immediately after infection, but in children this is not always the case. In this situation, there are such manifestations as weakness, decreased appetite, apathy, fatigue, headaches or dizziness, pain in the muscles or in the joints.
In some cases, there are respiratory manifestations: a runny nose, a sore throat, a weak cough.
- As the virus enters the lymph nodes, they will certainly be enlarged, even if only slightly. As a rule, the occipital nodes suffer more, as well as the ear and back parts. When palpation, small dense swellings the size of a pea are found. This symptom often occurs within a day or two before manifest manifestations.
- Sometimes, before the appearance of the main symptoms, there is an enanthema, which is characterized by a soft palate. H photo it looks like pink spots of small size. Gradually, they can increase and merge into larger spots, as well as darken and acquire a bright red color. Then the spots disappear, but the redness and puffiness remain.
- The most basic and characteristic symptom of rubella is a rash( it can easily be found in the photo).It looks like small red specks. They most often do not rise above the level of the skin( although it may be) and do not flake. First of all, rashes cover the face, neck, neck, area behind the ears and even the scalp. Then the rash spreads all over the body: on the back and stomach, arms and legs. The palms and soles of the feet remain intact. Small specks can merge, forming larger ones. Eruptions are significant on the first day and reach a peak in a day, and on the second day the spots decrease. Three days later the spots begin to turn pale, and after another two or three days they disappear completely.
- Itching occurs infrequently and can not be significant, so that discomfort often does not occur( so it does not need a specific itch treatment).
- The temperature may be elevated, but not to critical levels. The increase in most cases occurs with the occurrence of rashes and is observed for 3-4 days, no more.
- Some people have reddening of the conjunctiva( mucous membranes of the eyes and eyelids), a slight tearing. But these manifestations are insignificant( in the photo this is almost imperceptible), so treatment may not be performed.
Before starting treatment, it is important to know the exact diagnosis. Rubella in children is easily detected after a blood test for the presence of certain antibodies.
How to treat?
As such, no treatment is required, no special preparations against the rubella virus have been created. The virus after a certain time itself ceases to be active, all the symptoms pass without a trace. Yet some activities may be appropriate.
We list the possible measures:
- With fever, antipyretic drugs such as Nurofen or child Paracetamol can be prescribed.
- With strong rashes, a new generation of antihistamines can be prescribed by a doctor. But the reception of such funds is required in isolated cases.
- If itching occurs, local cooling agents( ointments, creams, gels) may be prescribed.
- In severe cases, the patient is shown sparing or even bed rest.
- The food should be full, but not too heavy. All products are better processed thermally.
- The room in which the child is staying should be ventilated and clean. Wet cleaning is desirable to be done every day, and airing is carried out several times a day.
- Vitamin therapy too will not be superfluous.
- In case of pain and a significant increase in lymph nodes, UHF therapy procedures may be prescribed.
- The patient should be isolated in order to avoid the spread of the virus.
Rubella in pregnancy
Rubella is extremely dangerous during pregnancy, since most children infected with the virus in utero have serious malformations and pathologies of development. Premature births and even inbirth are possible. And since treatment is impossible, consequences can not be avoided.
The only effective preventive measure is vaccination. Vaccination against such a disease is included in the mandatory list and is made to babies at the age of 1-1.5 years.
Let all children be healthy!
- Trepidulous disease symptoms
- How to treat ear pain
- The baby has a rash on the back