At the heart of gout development is the accumulation in the body of salts of uric acid( urate), which leads to the characteristic clinical manifestations. During the treatment of this disease, preparations of various groups are used. However, all these medicines will not bring the desired result if the patient does not follow the diet for gout. A balanced diet with severe nutritional restrictions in this disease is not only desirable, but also vitally important.
Basic principles of the
diet The complex treatment of gout provides for three main directions:
- Acceleration of excretion of urate from the body;
- Obstruction of their formation in the body;
- Prevention of urate intake.
If the first two tasks are addressed in the course of appropriate drug therapy, then the latter - through a special diet for gout. After all, a significant part of urate enters our body from the outside, with food. Although, to be more precise, food products contain not urate, but purine bases, or simply purines.
What are purines from the chemical point of view, and what is their biological role in the human body. These are non-protein nitrogenous compounds that come with the composition of nucleic acids - DNA and RNA.Nucleic acids are carriers of genetic information that play a key role in the synthesis of protein and provide its species specificity. In addition to nucleic acids, purines are part of ATP, the cleavage of which releases a large amount of energy. In addition, purines are included in many enzymes that provide metabolism( metabolism) - proteins, carbohydrates, fats and minerals. Purines enter the structure of many biogenic stimulants, including Caffeine and Riboxin.
Part of purines are synthesized in our body, and part comes from food. The need for an organism in these compounds is not that great. In time, purines also undergo cleavage. The product of this cleavage is uric acid. Splitting of proteins in the human body does not lead to increased formation of uric acid. Thus, uric acid is not a pathological compound. Moreover, it has the properties of an antioxidant, and in normal amounts prevents damage to cells.
Surplus of uric acid in healthy people is excreted from the body by the kidneys. Gout develops not because of increased intake of purines in the body, but because of a disruption of excretion of uric acid. Nevertheless, the diet is the key to the successful treatment of this disease. True, this compound is poorly soluble in water. Therefore, uric acid is transformed into urate salts to successfully excrete urine. Urates dissolve well in alkaline environment, and in acidic form an organic sediment in the form of concrements - kidney stones. Therefore, with gout, the diet should provide not only an obstacle to the intake of purines, but also alkalinization of urine, the exclusion of products that promote its acidification.
What can not you eat?
Signs of gout in men
It is believed that gout is banned food, rich in animal protein and easily digestible carbohydrates. Yes this is true. But the point here is not only in the increased amount of proteins and carbohydrates. The point is that the formation of protein and carbohydrate compounds takes place under the control of purines. Therefore, a large number of proteins in food are often combined with a large number of purines. Rapid growth of certain tissues of animals leads to an increase in the number of cells. The more cells - the more contained in them nucleic acids, and, accordingly, purines.
Based on this, the meat of animals taken from the lower extremities contains more purine than the breast. Pork has more purines than beef. In most diets, the meat of young animals is preferable to the old ones. However, in the case of gout, the young meat is to some extent even worse than the old one. After all, in young individuals muscle grows, the number of muscle cells, and along with them - purine bases, increases. In the process of cooking meat, purines quickly become broth. Therefore, all broths and meat jelly with gout are contraindicated. But low-fat dietary meat is allowed, but in small quantities. Animal proteins( and vegetable ones, too), though not purine compounds, are still contraindicated in gout. Intermediate products of protein decay have an acid reaction, which, as already mentioned, is highly undesirable in gout.
Just like dietary meat, a little boiled fish is allowed. But fatty, salted fish, fish caviar for gout - all this is prohibited. When gout is not allowed to take any smoked meat and canned food, both meat and fish. Other forbidden foods are the tongue, liver and brain of animals, which also contain a large amount of purine. Salt for gout is allowed only in small quantities, and therefore any kind of pickles, including vegetables, should be excluded from the menu. In this regard, salted cheese is also not allowed. In addition to salt, any dishes with gout with the contents of spices, spices, products containing preservatives are forbidden.
There are opposite points of view about mushrooms and gout. It is believed that mushrooms grown in artificial conditions are contraindicated because of the presence of preservatives. Mushrooms collected in the forest are allowed for food, but in small quantities. The same applies not only to whole mushrooms, but also any mushroom dishes, including broths, soups
Among the products rich in vegetable protein are soybeans( green peas, beans, soya), the reception of which is contraindicated for gout. Turnip, tomatoes, parsley, asparagus, radish, sorrel, spinach - all this with gout should, if not completely eliminate, then at least limit as much, since these products contain oxalic acid, acidifying urine. Coffee, strong tea containing caffeine, is uniquely excluded from the diet, just like chocolate and chocolate sweets. Grapes help increase the acidity of urine and are therefore banned in this disease. For the same reason, people who suffer from gout should not drink wine. In general, with this disease for any alcoholic beverages must be imposed a hard taboos.
Fats do not contain purines. However, overweight burdens the course of gout. Therefore, with this disease should limit the reception of white bread, confectionery, any product containing a large number of animal fats.
What can I eat?
After such a huge list of prohibited products, the question is quite logical: what kind of food is allowed? It should be noted that the food products allowed for gout are numerous. Classical diet is based on vegetarian unroasted soups and porridges - buckwheat, rice, wheat. Macaroni are also allowed. In addition, when gout is allowed:
- Vegetables - squash, eggplant, cabbage, potatoes, carrots;
- Boiled meat dietary - preferably a rabbit, a bird;
- Dairy products - milk, sour cream, kefir, milk jelly, cottage cheese, unsalted cheese;
- Bread - rye, bran;
- Drinks - fruit juices, jelly, compote of dried fruits, alkaline mineral waters( Borjomi, Essentuki).
All these products formed the basis for dietary recommendations for gout in the general diet system developed by the scientist-dietician Pevzner. In this system, two diets are recommended for gout.
According to the recommendations of nutritionists during the exacerbation of gout, the diet consists only of plant foods - all animal products are completely excluded
Diet No. 6
Diet No. 6 presupposes:
- Elimination of food rich in purines from the diet;
- Restriction of salt;
- Restriction of proteins and fats;
- Reception of boiled meat, poultry, fish;
- Presence in the diet of dairy products, fruit compotes, juices, vegetables.
Similar characteristics have a diet number 8, aimed at fighting the frequent companion gout - obesity. In this diet - low-calorie, mainly vegetable food, with the complete exception of fats, sweets, flour products.
Oatmeal is an excellent remedy for cleansing the intestines. The product is low-calorie, is included in the diet for many diseases, and gout is no exception.
With gout, the diet is not characterized by strict technological rules - there is always a field for improvisation. Numerous recipes for gout are developed.
Rice with apples
Boil 75 g of rice in 150 g of milk. The resulting porridge is during the day, in 3 divided doses together with 250 g of apples.
Boil 180 g of beet until half cooked, grate. Add the same amount of potatoes, 80 g of carrots, 50 g of onions and 160 g of cabbage. Cook, season with sour cream.
Cut the onions into rings and fry in vegetable oil. Then add the diced carrots, lightly put out, then add to the pan boiled potatoes, eggplant.
Grate 10 peeled potatoes, add 3 raw eggs and 2-3 crushed cloves of garlic. All this mix, squeeze the water and fry in a frying pan in the form of cutlets.
All these and other dishes should be consumed with a large amount of liquid - at least 2 liters.per day in the absence of contraindications from the kidneys. It is necessary to arrange a split meal 5-6 times a day in small portions. It is desirable to arrange occasional days off.
Of course, gourmets with gout will be hard - many delicacies will have to be abandoned completely. But a full-fledged diet with a variety of delicious dishes will largely be able to compensate for gastronomic costs in the treatment of this disease.
- Basic principles of the
- diet What can not be eaten
- What can
- Diet №6
- Useful recipes