Interruption of pregnancy in the early stages of pills, that is, medical abortion, is currently used in a number of countries, such as the United States, Britain, Germany, France, Sweden is quite widespread. Currently, abortion pills are becoming more popular in Israel, Switzerland, Spain, Austria, Finland, Belgium and Russia.
tablets For the first time, a tablet for abortion was introduced into medical practice in France, where the drug "Mifegin" was developed. Today, about 80% of French women are abortion tablets for surgical termination of pregnancy. In the Russian Federation, "Mifegin" was first successfully applied for medical abortion in 1999.In Russia today, in addition to Mifegin for the termination of pregnancy, Mifepristone and Pencrofton, produced in Russia, and the Russian-Chinese drug Mifolian are also used. According to opinion polls, about 85% will prefer pills that interrupt pregnancy, if they have a need for its interruption.
Advantages of the
method The advantages of abortion with medications are obvious. First, it is much easier for a woman to postpone abortion in such a way that she only needs to take a pill before going through a surgical procedure. In addition, this method does not injure the mucous membranes of the uterus and cervix, which significantly reduces the risk of possible complications and preserves reproductive function. In addition, the risk of infection and, consequently, the development of inflammatory processes is excluded. Also, there is no need for anesthesia.
Medical abortion flows like a normal menstruation, only slightly more painful and more abundant. The effectiveness of medical abortion is quite high - about 95-98%.In Russia, drugs for early termination of pregnancy are allowed to use when the term of pregnancy is not more than 6 weeks. At a later date, the use of such tablets makes no sense, since with the increase in the period of pregnancy their effectiveness of medicamental methods is significantly reduced.
Mechanism of action
As you know, one menstrual cycle includes two stages. At the first stage, the egg is maturing, which is initiated by female sex hormones by estrogens and certain pituitary hormones. Then follows ovulation - the release of the egg from the ovary and its entry into the fallopian tube. In the second stage of the menstrual cycle, following ovulation, as a result of the action of the female sex hormone progesterone in the case of fertilization of the ovum, uterine contractions are prevented. In the same cases, when pregnancy does not occur, the amount of progesterone decreases, the smooth muscles of the uterus begin to contract, and its mucosa as a result is rejected and withdrawn from the uterus. If the pregnancy has come, then the body begins to produce for its preservation an even greater amount of progesterone, suppressing uterine contractions.
The medications used for abortion help reduce the number of capillaries in the uterine mucosa and stop the progesterone entering it. In addition, these tablets help to relax the smooth muscles of the cervix. In addition, such tablets contain a large number of hormones, the effect of which causes the death of the embryo. As a result, the uterine uterine buccal mucosa with the already lost embryo fixed inside it is rejected and pushed outwards with the help of muscle contractions.
This process flows for the most part virtually bloodless and quite painless.
Possible complications of
As each woman has individual characteristics, including the features of the structure of the walls and blood supply of the uterus, to give full guarantee that this procedure will not have any negative consequences, gynecologists can not.
The most dangerous complication of such an abortion may be bleeding. If the bleeding started after taking the pill is several times more than the usual menstruation, a woman should immediately call an ambulance.
But if such complications are not observed often, the incomplete removal of the fetal egg is quite frequent. Of course, a competent gynecologist can cope with it, but it is necessary to observe a gynecologist with a woman.
Indications and contraindications
Indications for taking pills that interrupt pregnancy early are pregnancy with a period of no more than forty-two days, as well as unprotected sexual intercourse, after which the taking of tablets is the prevention of unwanted pregnancy.
Before conducting medical abortion, a woman needs a full examination, including ultrasound of the female genital area, an assessment of blood clotting, taking swabs from the vagina to determine the condition of the microflora, a general clinical examination. This examination is necessary first of all because as a result of it it can be clarified whether the use of tablets for abortion is contraindicated to a woman.
A medical abortion is contraindicated in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, a violation of blood coagulability, as well as some other conditions, the degree of which is evaluated only by a doctor.
For abortion with medication, there is no need for hospitalization in a hospital. The female body is restored after such an interruption very quickly, in most cases it can return to its usual life rhythm just the day after it.
Stages of procedure
Before taking a pill to interrupt pregnancy, a woman should consult a doctor and be examined. The doctor needs to make sure that the woman does not have contraindications to the use of such tablets. After this, the patient will be familiarized with the mechanism of action of such drugs and the technique of performing such an abortion, and then will have to sign a written consent for its implementation.
After 4-5 hours after taking the drug, a woman needs constant observation for a certain period of time. Accompanying the bleeding expulsion of the fetal egg can begin already and after a few hours, but may last for several days.
Follow-up inspection of
Two weeks after the abortion, a woman is required to exclude the incomplete removal of the embryo. In case of detection of the remains of the fetal egg, scraping of the uterus is prescribed.
Possible complications of
Following the procedure of medical abortion, the following undesirable consequences can occur:
- continuation of pregnancy( rarely, only in 1% of cases, but happens);
- severe pain in the lower abdominal cavity;
- profuse bleeding( may be a consequence of incomplete abortion, and the result is not recognized before the procedure of clotting disorders of the blood);
- general malaise, accompanied by chills, weakness, fever;
- dyspeptic phenomena( nausea and vomiting);
- malfunctions in the body of a hormonal nature.
- Uzi at week 12 of pregnancy