Osteoarthritis is a chronic progressive degenerative-dystrophic disease of the joints of the body, which is characterized by a gradual destruction of the articular cartilage and a change in the underlying bone tissue. This is the most common form of articular pathology, which affects mostly elderly and elderly people, but the development of the disease is also possible among young people of the young age group.
Osteoarthritis not only worsens the quality of life of a sick person, causing permanent pain in the joints, but also contributes to functional limitations, which sometimes leads even to disability. Arthrosis changes in large joints are a common cause of surgery such as knee and hip arthroplasty.
The number one problem of modern rheumatology and orthopedics is the question of how to treat osteoarthritis so that therapy is effective and eliminates the need for traumatic and risky surgery. Unfortunately, today there are no methods that can cure osteoarthritis, but if the diagnosis is made at an early stage of the pathology with the help of complex therapy, you can achieve not only stabilization of the process, but also its regression. This article will consider the main methods of treatment of osteoarthritis, as well as recommendations for the correction of lifestyle to prevent further progression of the disease.
Osteoarthritis can affect all joints in the human body
Medication of osteoarthritis
The standards for the treatment of osteoarthritis necessarily include the use of different groups of medicines. They can reduce the symptoms of the disease, in particular, pain, which improves the quality of life of sick people, as well as slow the development of joint damage.
All preparations for the treatment of osteoarthritis can be divided into 2 large groups:
- Symptoms with a quick effect that affect the symptoms of the disease and eliminate pain, swelling, inflammation.
- Modifying agents with a slow effect, the effect of which develops gradually, but continues for a long time after cancellation.
This group includes analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoid drugs.
It's important to know! All these medications do not affect the course of the pathological process, they only relieve a person for a while from the painful symptoms of osteoarthritis. As a rule, they are prescribed by short courses during exacerbations, outside of which their application is undesirable, since these drugs have many contraindications and side effects, especially with prolonged and uncontrolled admission.
From the group of analgesics are used as non-narcotic( paracetamol, ketones, analgin, dexalgin), and narcotic drugs. The first is often prescribed for exacerbation of the disease in combination with NSAIDs for better relief of the pain syndrome. Preparations from the second row( tramadol, nalbuphine, morphine) are used strictly according to the doctor's indications in case of persistent pain syndrome, which is not stopped by other means. As a rule, such a need arises at the last stage of arthrosis. These drugs are prescribed a short course as a transitional stage to surgical treatment.
The most common medications for eliminating pain and other symptoms of joint arthrosis are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The most commonly used diclofenac, aceclofenac, ibuprofen, meloxicam, indomethacin, naproxen, celecoxib, etorikoksib, nimesulide, ketoprofen. All these substances exist in various dosage forms( tablets, ointments, capsules, patches, gels, injectable solutions).This allows for a combined and effective removal of pain, inflammation and swelling.
Meloxicam - a modern non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
As a supplement to the main drug treatment often used drugs that improve microcirculation processes in the body. Thus, experts try to improve the metabolism and supply of hyaline cartilage of joints with oxygen and nutrients. This group includes curantyl, trental, nicotinic acid.
Sometimes the treatment regimen includes the use of drugs that eliminate spasm of skeletal muscle. This is especially true when large joints, for example, the hip are affected. The fact is that the aggravation of the process is accompanied by a protective mechanism - a spasm of skeletal muscles. But this only increases the pain, because this "protection" has to be removed medically. To this end, apply Mydocalm, Sirdalud.
In some cases, glucocorticoid drugs are introduced into the complex of treatment, which have a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effect, perfectly eliminate pain. But their use, especially systemic administration, is associated with high risks of serious side effects, so drugs from this group are used short courses and, mainly, for intraarticular injections. Most commonly used are Kenalog, Diprospan, Flosteron, Hydrocortisone.
This group of medicines includes chondroprotectors. These are drugs, without which effective treatment of osteoarthritis is impossible. They are the main components of the cartilaginous tissue of the joints( glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate).With arthrosis, the formation of these substances in the body is slowed down, there is a shortage of them. By introducing from the outside( orally or with intramuscular and intraarticular injections), cartilage can be provided with the basic "building material" and slow or stop the progression of the pathology.
Dona - effective chondroprotective agent
The most popular representatives of chondroprotectors:
It's important to know! Chondroprotectors do not have analgesic strength and can not quickly eliminate pain and inflammation. But with long-term admission these drugs will reduce the number of exacerbations of the pathology, improve the function of the patient's joint.
Regimen and diet
All patients with arthrosis of the joints, especially when exacerbated, show compliance with a special regimen. Its essence lies in unloading the diseased joints. Prohibited long standing, walking, with damage to the joints of the hands - long stereotyped movements. A person is assigned bed rest. It is necessary to temporarily suspend physical activity, exercise exercise physical therapy. In especially severe cases, stretching is used to unload the joints, and special orthopedic devices such as walking cane, tires and orthoses are prescribed.
The cane reduces the load on the affected joint and prevents its further destruction
A special diet for joint osteoarthritis is not required. It is necessary to enrich your diet with foods high in vitamins and trace elements. In the case of excess kilograms, the food should be low-calorie in order to normalize the body mass index, since each extra kilogram increases the load on the diseased joints.
Therapeutic gymnastics for osteoarthritis
The basic rule for performing exercise therapy at home is to train only outside of exacerbation. In the presence of pain, any physical exertion is excluded.
The complex of exercises should be selected in each individual case by an expert, based on the stage of the disease, the localization of lesions, the age and lifestyle of a person, his physical fitness.
Basic principles of exercise therapy for osteoarthritis:
- any movement should not be too intense and cause pain or discomfort;
- amplitude of physical exercises, as well as their duration, it is necessary to increase gradually;
- sharp and abrupt movements are contraindicated;
- if during the training there is pain, then the classes stop.
Therapeutic physical training allows to strengthen the muscles of the body, in particular, the muscular skeleton of the diseased joints, which is an excellent supporting device and perfectly reduces the load on the damaged articular cartilage.
Therapeutic gymnastics is an effective method of not only treating osteoarthritis, but also its prevention
Physiotherapy and massage
Various physiotherapy procedures are an integral part of the complex treatment of arthrosis. They improve microcirculation, relieve the pathological muscle spasm, eliminate inflammation, pain and swelling, contribute to the restoration of the damaged structure of the cartilaginous tissue.
The most effective physical procedures:
- drug electrophoresis,
- paraffin and ozocerite applications,
- amplipulse therapy,
- laser treatment,
- mud packs,
Therapeutic and restorative massage is also performed only outside of exacerbation of arthrosis. It helps to improve the tone of the muscles supporting the damaged joints, to improve blood flow in them, to eliminate the pathological muscle spasm.
Alternative or alternative methods of treatment of osteoarthritis are very popular among the population, despite the lack of clinical evidence of their effectiveness. Nevertheless, such techniques have not helped one thousand patients.
The most popular ways of non-traditional joint treatment:
- Treatment with folk remedies .There are many recipes of folk medicine for both internal and external use. When choosing the right means for you, be sure to consult your doctor about this. Perhaps you have contraindications to the use of a prescription.
- Apitherapy .This treatment is the products of beekeeping and bee venom. Applied as stinging bees, and treatment with bee soup. The main care - all methods of apitherapy are contraindicated for allergies to bees.
- Hirudotherapy .This is a technique for treating medical leeches. Animals release into the bloodstream a substance called hirudin. It improves microcirculation and rheological properties of blood, eliminates inflammation, swelling and pain, and improves metabolic processes. Contraindicated hirudotherapy to people with increased bleeding, hemophilia, pregnant women, with increased sensitivity to hirudin.
Surgical treatment of
It is indicated to patients with severe disease in the absence of the effect of conservative therapy. The main indications for surgery are pain syndrome, which is not stopped by medication, and functional limitations of the motor activity of a person.
Operations are organ-preserving, or arthroplasty, when the joint itself is retained, and only the correction of its anatomical shape is performed, for example, removal of osteophytes. Also, endoprosthetics are isolated when the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial endoprosthesis.
Sometimes only such an operation can relieve a person of pain and give him a sense of joy of free movement.
- Treatment and diet
- Therapeutic gymnastics
- Physiotherapy and massage
- Alternative therapies
- Surgical treatment