A blockade is a method of treatment consisting in the introduction of a drug substance into tissues and those neural formations that participate in the innervation of the diseased organ. Blockade of the spine can significantly alleviate the condition of the patient, positively affect the course of the disease.
Types of therapeutic blockades of
Blockages in the spine are made during surgical interventions, acute and chronic pain, which can not be cured by other methods of treatment. The main cause of pain is osteochondrosis with all its manifestations.
Paravertebral cervical blockade quickly relieves pain
The essence of the therapeutic blockade is to anesthetize, relieve muscle spasm for a different period of time. This breaks the pathological link between pain and muscle spasm. Anesthesia is done in all parts of the spine:
- cervical region - the area of the stellate node or nerve roots;
- thoracic region - intercostal blockades;
- lumbosacral department - epidural, spinal, and conductive blockades.
More often the place of introduction of unilateral or bilateral blockades is the lumbosacral region. By the method of injecting pricks into the spinal column, the analgesic procedures are divided into several types.
Epidural anesthesia is one of the best ways of anesthetizing
- Epidural, or epidural, anesthesia is a kind of conductive blockade. The analgesic substance is injected into the epidural region - an isolated space between the periosteum of the spine and the medullary membrane. Indications - radicular lesions of the lumbar and sacral nerves.
- Conductor blockades - injections are made in the lumbar region along the line of passage of the nerve trunk.
- Spinal blockades - anesthesia is carried out due to the effect on spinal cord roots during operations on the organs of the chest and abdomen.
- Paravertebral injections make soft tissues in the surrounding spine near the site of the nerve root exit from the spinal canal.
Anesthetics and auxiliary preparations
For blockages of the spine, basic and auxiliary medications are used. For a long time the main remedy was novocaine. But it is gradually being superseded by more perfect, effective analgesics. Representatives of some of them are:
- lidocaine( xylocaine, xichain);
- dicaine - 12 times more effective than novocaine, but much more toxic than it;
- trimecaine( mesocaine) - analgesic action similar to lidocaine;
- prilokain( xylonist) - less toxic than novocaine, by action is close to lidocaine.
Lidocaine is a common strong anesthetic drug
. More recently, anesthesia has been used with morphine or promedol. The drug is used alone or combined with other anesthetics. The method is used primarily for epidural blockades.
In addition to anesthetics for the removal of pain, inflammation used synthetic hormones of the adrenal glands, non-steroid preparations. The brightest representatives of this series are the glucocorticosteroid diprospan and the non-steroidal agent xsefokam. Diprospans stop pain, inflammation, allergic, autoimmune reactions. Contraindication is solely the individual intolerance of the drug. Xefokam, in comparison with other NPCs, is characterized by a minor side effect.
To reduce the rate of absorption of anesthetic, prolong the duration of action, reduce toxicity, adrenaline is used. Other auxiliary medicines are vitamins. They also increase the effect of anesthetics.
Relanium will calm the patient before any procedure
Before blockade on the spine, it is necessary to reduce the nervous tension of the patient. To this end, sedatives are used:
- barbiturates( most known phenobarbital, thiopental);
- nosepam, etc.
Allergic reactions are eliminated by diphenhydramine, pipolfen, suprastin, tavegil.
How anesthesia is done
The procedure begins with the preparation of tools, medications, the operating field. Used:
Prick - sometimes the only way to relieve severe pain
- is an anesthetic( a solution of novocaine of different concentrations or lidocaine);
- if necessary, additives - vitamins, corticosteroids, NPCs;
- disposable syringes with a capacity of 20 ml;
- needles for injections long - 6-10 cm, short - 2-3 cm;
- alcohol, iodine, cotton wool, napkins.
Sterile styling can be supplemented with other medical supplies - additional syringes, needles, bandages, cotton balls, medicines. At the Novocaine lumbar blockade, the patient lies on its side with a roll placed under the waist. With epidural anesthesia, the patient sits or lies on his side, pulling his knees to the stomach. This position of the body is optimal for the operation.
Beefs are designed for disinfection and storage of sterile material
Injection field is treated with alcohol, iodine. First, intradermal chipping with a short needle( lemon crust) is done. Then take a long needle, enter gradually into the right place. As the needle moves, the drug is delivered to several points. Doses of drugs depend on the patient's condition.
After blockades, the patient is under the supervision of a doctor( surgeon, neurologist, orthopedist) for 3 hours. With different types of anesthesia, the place and technique of administration, respectively, change. The attending physician requires knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal column, the location of the vessels and nerves.
Manipulations on the spine are rare, but have adverse effects. The most dangerous are purulent inflammation of the spinal cord, caused by violation of the rules of asepsis. Another complication is the puncture of the blood vessel, fraught with a hemorrhage in the spinal cord.
The cost of
How much does the blockade cost? If the patient is in the neurological department of the municipal hospital, the treatment is free. But acute pains do not leave time for waiting. It is faster and easier to contact the nearest medical center or clinic and pay for the treatment. The cost of the service consists of:
- type of anesthesia;
- department in which it needs to be done;
- medicines, equipment;
- medical institution.
Average cost of some types of anesthesia:
- paravertebral( prices vary from 1100 to 1500 rubles).If the procedure is simultaneously accompanied by ultrasound or X-ray control, the price increases 2-3 times and is 3000-6000 rubles;
- epidural blockade is more expensive, treatment is estimated at between 2000 and 8700 rubles. Payment, as a rule, includes the cost of the medicine.
The presence of back pains largely depends on the condition of the spine. Osteochondrosis develops mainly after 40 years. However, the natural processes of aging are observed in 30 and 20-year-old young people. In order not to need treatment, constantly engage in your spine - strengthen muscles, train joints.
- Types of therapeutic blockades
- Anesthetics and auxiliary preparations
- How anesthesia is done