- First aid for stretching ligaments
- What is strictly prohibited?
- Conservative therapy
- When to seek medical help
- Surgical treatment
- Rehabilitation program
- Folk remedies
Consequences of sprains are dependent on the degree of injury, the completeness and timeliness of first aid, from further treatment and rehabilitation programs.
What to do with stretching ligaments, regardless of the location of the injury, should be known to every person who is not indifferent to their health and the welfare of others. Treatment includes three main steps:
- First aid for sprain.
- The main treatment( conservative or operative).
- Activities to restore the function of the joint.
First aid for sprains
Begin treatment with sprains as soon as possible after injury. Do not delay this, because the timeliness of emergency care and its correctness depends on the prognosis and speed of recovery. In addition, you absolutely do not need to have any special medical knowledge to help yourself or someone close to you in such a trauma. All first aid measures are very simple and can be mastered by everyone. Let's consider what needs to be done, providing first aid.
After injury, it is necessary to provide complete functional rest to the damaged joint. Any movement, even minimal, can aggravate the condition and cause complications, such as complete rupture of the ligament fibers, bleeding, rupture of the joint capsule, etc.
Even when stretching the first degree, it is forbidden to load the affected joints for several days.
It's important to know and remember! Prolonged immobilization is also harmful, as well as early activation, since during forced rest begins muscle atrophy and shortening of ligaments. This in the future can cause the limitation of the amplitude of movements in the damaged joint, its deformation and the development of contracture.
The main criterion for which you need to navigate, returning to the usual level of physical activity, is pain. If during discomfort you feel discomfort, then load the joint early. And if there are no pain, then it's time to develop a damaged site.
Stitching steps from an elastic bandage to an ankle
Fixing a damaged joint, besides immobilizing and limiting dangerous movements, performs several other important functions. First, the bandage from the elastic bandage reduces the intensity of pain, reduces swelling of the tissues at the site of injury. Secondly, this simple measure prevents such a dangerous complication with joint bruises, like hemarthrosis( hemorrhage into the joint cavity).
If you do not have the skills of imposing bandages on different joints and there is no desire to learn them, then you can use ready-made elastic bandages, calipers, orthoses. In specialized stores such products can be selected for any joints of the body.
Quickly remove the pain will help a cold compress or a hot water bottle with ice. Alternatively, you can use a bag of frozen vegetables from the freezer wrapped in a towel. Cold will eliminate acute pain, prevent the development of hemarthrosis, reduce the degree of edema. Cold compresses should be applied to the sore spot for no more than 15-20 minutes every two hours. You can do this during the first 2-3 days after getting the injury.
The ice pack with ice will quickly eliminate pain when stretching the ligaments
There are also special preparations for freezing places of bruises. Such products are produced in the form of sprays and contain a substance that cools the tissues when applied to the skin instantly. As a rule, such sprays are used in professional sports when getting injured.
If the joint and its ligaments are damaged, it is desirable to give the limb an elevated position( above the heart level).This will slightly limit the flow of blood to the site of injury, respectively, reduce the risk of bleeding, reduce swelling and inflammation.
Even stretching of the first degree is accompanied by a pain syndrome, therefore elimination of this unpleasant phenomenon is a priority task of first aid. As a rule, the implementation of the described measures very often provides an anesthetic effect. Additional actions are not needed. But in the case when the injury is serious, and the pain does not pass, you can resort to an independent intake of analgesics( no more than 2 tablets) even before the arrival of the ambulance.
Basic principles of first aid for stretching of ligaments on the example of the ankle
What is strictly prohibited?
There are cases when persons who have sprained ligaments do not know how to behave in such a situation and with inept actions only aggravate their condition. Remember the activities that are prohibited in this type of injury:
- You can not use any warming procedures in an acute period, for example, heat compresses, warming and local irritating ointments, gels, warm water bottles, etc.
- You can not drink alcohol for the purpose of anesthesia. This will only increase swelling and pain.
- Active movements, rubbing, kneading, massage of the damaged place. Such actions will only increase the chance of complications.
The main stage of treatment of sprains can be carried out both in the conditions of traumatological hospital and in outpatient conditions( depending on the type and extent of injury).Conservative therapy at this stage includes the use of medications from several groups.
In the first place are analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs( ketoprofen, diclofenac, nimesulide, meloxicam, ibuprofen, indomethacin, etc.).These drugs are used in the form of intramuscular injections, oral tablets, creams, gels, ointments for external use.
The best ointment is difficult to name, but such means are very popular: Voltaren, Diprilif, Dolabene, Indovazin, Fastum-gel, Dolgit, Ketonal, Traumel, Ibuprofen, Viprosal, Gevkamen.
Voltaren is an effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory ointment
In the case of intense pain, which is not eliminated by analgesics, the doctor can make a blockade of the affected joint using local anesthetics( lidocaine, novocaine).
Than to spread the joint area for resorption of bruises and bruises? For this purpose, suitable means: heparin ointment and Troxevasin. They quickly eliminate the accumulation of blood, prevent the formation of blood clots. But they can only be used if you are sure that the bleeding has stopped.
Ointments with a warming effect are allowed to use only during recovery from injury. Which of them to choose, the doctor decides. Such remedies consist of components of snake, bee venom, red pepper extract, plant salicylates, so these stretch agents are very allergenic and should be used with caution.
When to seek medical care for
If you are alone in the treatment of sprain, you should remember the situations in which you urgently need to seek specialized medical help:
- limb function disability, impossibilitycarry out active movements;
- intense pain syndrome, which does not pass;
- marked and progressive edema of the joint region;
- occurrence of fever;
- development of signs of arthritis( pain, swelling, redness, increased local skin temperature);
- self-treatment does not bring a positive result for 3 days.
All these symptoms indicate the complication of complications, or an initially incorrect diagnosis and a complicated variant of joint injury, for example, ligament rupture, fracture.
Surgical treatment of
Operative treatment is prescribed in case of ligament rupture, when it was not possible to achieve recovery by conservative methods or in case of injury in a professional athlete to resume the function of the joint in full.
During the arthroscopy the surgeon makes only three small punctures
Modern surgical interventions on the ligaments are performed with the help of arthroscopic technique without large incisions and heavy recovery. The type of operation depends on the severity of the injury. As a rule, the damaged ligamentous elements are reconstructed, replaced by an auto- or allograft.
Surgical treatment is indicated immediately after injury or after a period of 6 weeks. The operation performed in the middle of the indicated period has a poor prognosis.
Rehabilitation Program Restoration after sprains should begin after the end of an acute period of trauma, when there is no more pain. The rehabilitation program mainly consists of three areas: therapeutic physical training, various physiotherapy procedures, and massage. Restorative treatment can be carried out at home, in a polyclinic or special rehabilitation centers.
Therapeutic physical training is the main component of the successful rehabilitation of
. Folk remedies
All folk remedies that are intended for the treatment of sprains can be used only during rehabilitation and only after consulting a doctor. Consider a few popular recipes.
Such an exercise will help to eliminate bruises, bruises more quickly. Apply iodine mesh can only after 2-3 days from getting injured. Do not forget before the procedure to test the sensitivity to iodine with an allergic test. For treatment you need 5% iodine solution and cotton buds. Draw the grid so that its cells have a size of about one square centimeter.
Compression from clay
One raw potato and half a bulb with a blender whip into a slurry. In the resulting mixture, add a teaspoon of sugar and three tablespoons of any clay. Stir thoroughly. The composition is spread on a clean cloth and attach to the damaged area. Cover the wrap with a food wrap and wrap it with a warm cloth. Keep it 4-5 hours, the course consists of 5-7 compresses.
Remember that the treatment of sprain, regardless of location, begins with simple first aid measures. So do not forget about them, because such knowledge can be useful at any time.