Tension of ligaments is one of the most frequent types of traumatism both in domestic conditions and in professional activity. Particularly at risk of such injury are people who are engaged in sports. As a rule, the ligaments of large joints of the upper and lower extremities suffer most often: shoulder, elbow, knee and ankle.
The prognosis and consequences of stretched ligaments depend on the extent of the lesion( stretching, tearing or full rupture of the ligament fiber), on how quickly and effectively the first aid was given, on the volume of further treatment of sprain and rehabilitation.
Treatment of sprain of ligaments of any location can be divided into three stages:
- basic therapy( conservative or surgical);
- rehabilitation after trauma.
Let us consider in more detail what exactly includes each of these items.
The degree of sprain of the ligaments depends on the treatment of
. First aid.
. Treatment should be started immediately after trauma. Do not wait for the arrival of the "first aid", all the necessary emergency measures can be carried out independently or with the help of others. To do this, remember several principles of first aid in trauma.
Full rest for a sick limb
Never move a damaged leg or arm. This can lead to an aggravation of the condition and a complete rupture of the elongated ligament. Therefore, the first thing that should include treatment when stretching ligaments is a full functional rest.
Even with an easy degree of stretching, it is not recommended to load the affected joint for 3-4 days.
Next, you need to gradually begin to perform passive and active movements. Since a prolonged absence of stress leads to the development of muscle and ligament atrophy, which in the future may lead to a limitation of the amplitude of movements in the damaged joint. The main criterion that should be used when returning to active loads is pain in the articulation. If they are present during movement, then it's too early to load a limb.
They allow not only to limit the performance of unnecessary and dangerous movements, but also perform a number of important functions. Applying a pressure bandage from an elastic bandage helps to prevent the development of hemarthrosis( accumulation of blood inside the joint), also reduces the severity of edema and pain. It is possible to use ready-made protective bandages and orthoses for different joints instead of bandage. They are easy to wear, and they perfectly fix the sore spot.
In some cases, the doctor may prescribe wearing a cast band, longi or tutor. As a rule, this is necessary for severe damage to ligaments, and also after surgery for their rupture. The duration of such immobilization is determined by the doctor in each case individually.
Immediately after getting the injury to a sore spot, it is necessary to apply a cold compress or a hot water bottle with ice. This will not only reduce pain, but also prevent the development of bruising, hemarthrosis, reduce the intensity of edema and inflammation. Cold should be applied to the affected joint for 20 minutes every 2-3 hours during the first 2-3 days of treatment.
Cold compress perfectly eliminates pain in case of injury
There are special medicines in the form of sprays to cool the injured place. They are applied to the skin of the patient's joint, the coolant causes a decrease in the local temperature and provides an excellent analgesic effect.
Sublime limb position
An easy and effective exercise is to give the leg or arm with stretched ligaments an elevated position. This will reduce the intensity of blood flow in the damaged area, respectively, reduce edema and the risk of hemorrhage into the joint cavity. For this purpose, you can use a pillow or a roller made of clothes and other improvised materials.
Pain syndrome accompanies each case of stretching or rupture of ligaments. Typically, if the injury is not severe, the above measures lead to a reduction in pain and no further action is required. But if the pain syndrome is intense, then you can take 1 tablet of any OTC for yourself, for example, Ketanov, Nurofen, Arcoxia, etc.
Basic first aid measures for sprains in the ankle joint
Very often people who have received this kind of trauma try to cure it by methods that can only lead to deterioration and aggravation of the prognosis. Remember, what can not be done in the first days after stretching the ligaments of any location:
- prohibits any procedures of a thermal nature, for example, warming compresses, warm baths, dry heat and the like;
- alcohol consumption( this will only increase the swelling of the tissues and cause pain);
- physical exercises and active movements in the damaged joint( this can lead to a complete rupture of the ligaments and the need for their surgical recovery);
- any kind of massage( it can be done only at the stage of restorative treatment).
How to treat sprain with
medication Used for inpatient or out-patient treatment. Assign medications from the following groups:
- Anesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs( diclofenac, aceclofenac, ketoprofen, meloxicam, ibuprofen, indomethacin, etc.).These are the basic medicines that allow not only to eliminate pain, but also to eliminate inflammation, to reduce edema of tissues. They are used both for oral administration and for external ointments. The course of treatment should not exceed 14 days.
- Local anesthetics( lidocaine, novocaine, bupivacaine) can be used for severe pain syndrome. They can be applied to the skin in the form of sprays, or the doctor can inject the medication into soft tissues around the affected joint, which will cause considerable relief of the patient's condition.
- Ointments with a warming effect begin to be used only at the stage of rehabilitation, when the active phase of inflammation has already ended. They activate blood flow in the tissues of the injured joint and promote the regeneration of damaged structures. Such preparations are made on the basis of snake or bee venom, an extract of red pepper. Therefore, it is important to exclude the possibility of allergy and individual intolerance.
- Preparations for resorption by hematomas. They are used in the form of gels or ointments, for example, heparin ointment, troxevasin, etc. They well eliminate the accumulation of blood under the skin, promote the rapid disappearance of bruises and bruises, but can be used only if it is certain that the bleeding has stopped.
Important! Everyone should be aware of the signs of danger, when appearing, you should immediately seek medical help. These include: violation of the supporting function of the limb;loss of its mobility;pain that does not pass;increasing edema;increase in temperature, the appearance of signs of joint inflammation;if the previous treatment does not work for 3 days.
The operation with sprains is prescribed when they are partially or completely ruptured in the case where the improvement is not conservative. Also, surgical treatment is shown to professional athletes.
The operation should be performed for up to 1 week after injury or after 6. This is due to the fact that blood is accumulating in the joints between the joints, an inflammatory fluid that interferes with surgical procedures and also worsens the prognosis.
The type of operation and access depends on the location and extent of ligament damage. As a rule, perform reconstructive interventions with the restoration of the integrity of ligament fibers or a complete replacement for an auto- or allograft.
A part of the patellar ligament of the patient is often used as a transplant. Modern operations are carried out only with the help of arthroscopy, that is, without extensive incisions and dissection of the joint cavity. This greatly improves the prognosis and accelerates the recovery from injury.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive and highly effective method of surgical treatment of sprains
Recovery after stretching is necessary for both conservative and surgical treatment. For this purpose, 3 main methods are used: therapeutic physical training, massage and physiotherapy. The period of rehabilitation should begin already from the first days of reception of a trauma. It includes a stationary and polyclinic stage. In case of minor injuries, it is possible to restrict oneself to these methods only, but in case of severe trauma, as well as rupture of ligaments in professional athletes, it is better to take restorative treatment in specialized rehabilitation centers.
Treatment with folk remedies
Many patients who have sprained ligaments do not want to seek medical help and often think about how to treat this trauma at home. We must immediately say that people's treatment is permissible only in the case of an easy degree of damage. Coping with pain and swelling will help the following recipes.
Compression from clay
To prepare a healing clay compress you will need:
- 1 raw potatoes,
- half onion,
- teaspoon sugar,
- 3 tablespoons clay.
Compression of clay will help relieve pain and inflammation.
Potatoes and onions should be rubbed into gruel. Add sugar and clay, mix thoroughly. The resulting composition should be evenly distributed on a clean cloth and attached to the affected joint. Top with a wrap wrapped in polyethylene and secure with a bandage. You need to keep it all night. The course of treatment - 5-7 procedures.
For its preparation you need to grate 20 gr of laundry soap on a fine grater, add the protein of one raw chicken egg and 2 tablespoons of water. Stir all ingredients until smooth. To rub this ointment in the damaged place it is necessary 2 times a day. The course of treatment is 10-14 days.
It is necessary to heat 200 ml of apple cider vinegar, but do not bring it to a boil. Dissolve in it 2 teaspoons of salt and add 4 drops of iodine solution. In this mixture, you need to moisten a piece of natural tissue and wrap it with a diseased joint. The wrap should be kept for 15 minutes. Repeat the procedure can be 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment is 10 days.
When making the conclusion, it is important to note that with any injury of the joint, its ligaments may suffer. Therefore, every such case should not be left without a doctor's attention. Since the consequences can be the most serious.
- First aid
- How to treat stretching with medicines
- Surgical treatment
- Treatment with folk remedies