Many people have had to deal with such a problem as inflammation of the appendix of the rectum, and, more simply, with appendicitis. Appendicitis has a rather characteristic clinical picture and is easily diagnosed. The treatment of appendicitis is also well established and has long been no problem. The main difficulty is precisely the timely diagnosis of this disease, as it manifests itself quite brightly, but often people are trying simply to "endure" the pain that has arisen, which can lead to very serious consequences up to a lethal outcome.
Let's figure out what this disease is, what pains in appendicitis say, how to timely reveal its development and what methods of its treatment exist.
Table of contents:
- What is appendicitis?
- Why does appendicitis start?
- What are the symptoms of appendicitis?
- Diagnosis of appendicitis
- Treatment of
What is appendicitis?
At the end of the cecum, there is a thin and short blind worm-like process, the length of which is from 7 to 10 centimeters - that's what it is called an appendix. Appendicitis is an inflammation of this process.
In itself, the existence of an appendix was for a long time considered( and is now widely considered) simply a "mistake of nature" or a kind of rudiment. There have been quite a few studies in which scientists have tried to understand why this process is needed, because the human body is a perfectly balanced and "refined" mechanism in which all the "components" perform certain functions.
It was first established that gastric juice is produced in the appendix, but it is also produced( and in much larger quantities) and in any other part of the intestine, so the appendix plays no special role in digestion.
Then it appeared that this process is part of the body's immune system, because it found the same lymphoid cells as in tonsils. But their number was so insignificant that they could not have a serious impact on human immunity.
With all the "dubious benefits" of an appendix, the harm from it can be very significant - if you do not diagnose appendicitis in time, it can become a serious threat to human life. Some time ago, doctors preferred with or without, but "just in case" to remove the appendix. And to argue with this logic of "reinsurance" is still quite difficult.
Why does appendicitis start?
The cause of the development of acute appendicitis is not known. There are a number of theories, the most researched of which is mechanical. She suggests that, for various reasons, there is a blockage in the lumen of the appendage. Later it is filled with a mucus secret, its diameter increases several times, because of what it becomes strained and inflamed. The increase in pressure leads to squeezing of the veins located inside this process, because of which the outflow of blood and lymph is broken, which also leads to a build-up of pressure. Thus, acute inflammation rapidly develops up to tissue necrosis. True, it has not yet been established how these stones are formed and what preconditions exist for their appearance.
The main cause of such "blockage" and the appearance of pain in appendicitis are coprolits( fecal stones), the nature and causes of development of which are still unknown. But the lumen of the appendage can be closed for other reasons. So, for example, "plug" this hole can be swallowed by a person foreign bodies - small small objects( such as dental crowns, grape bones, etc.).This reason is most known to people, although in reality such cases are rare. Some time ago, a really frequent cause of appendicitis development were worms( most often - ascarids), which fell into the lumen of the appendage and there accumulated, gradually corking it. This reason is also very rare.
According to the statistics, the most significant risk factor is the "lazy intestine" and chronic constipation. But so far, a direct link between these problems has not been established.
There is also an infectious theory that suggests that infectious diseases can be the cause of this inflammation. Vascular theory blames the development of appendicitis systemic vasculitis, and the endocrine "blames" the cells that secrete serotonin.
What are the symptoms of appendicitis?
Appendicitis is the reason for quite characteristic pains, which are its main symptoms. But there are a number of clinical manifestations of this disease, but which should be paid attention, since appendicitis pains often have a non-localized nature.
So, in addition to pain sensations, there can be frequent urination, a loose stool, in rare cases, there is an increase in pressure and pulse. Also pay attention to the "triad of Murphy" - lack of appetite, vomiting of a reflex character and an increase in temperature to 38 degrees.
Abdominal pain with appendicitis usually appears in the periapical or epigastric region, often they are felt as "poured" over the entire abdomen. A little later the pain "shifts" to the right iliac region( sometimes the pain immediately appears in this area).
Typically, pain in this disease is characterized as a constant with moderate intensity. In most cases, it gradually increases as the inflammatory process develops, and also becomes more intense with coughing and movement. It is much worse when the pain begins to subside - it can talk about the development of gangrenous inflammation, in which nerve cells die. Their absence leads to the disappearance of pain.
Diagnosis of appendicitis
Naturally, only an expert can accurately diagnose and confirm the inflammation of this blind process. It should be borne in mind that the symptoms described above are quite "general" and a number of diseases have very similar manifestations.
There are quite a few symptoms that doctors pay attention to when diagnosing this condition. Naturally, to list them all there is no special sense - no doctor will check 20-30 symptoms, limiting only to a few, which are usually enough to make an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, we will only consider those that are used most often.
The sign of the roving - when diagnosed in the left iliac region, the fingers are subjected to jerky pressure. Because of the movement of gases in the colon, pain intensifies, which is a sign of inflammation of the appendix.
Symptom Sitkovsky - the patient simply lies down on his left side. With appendicitis, pain in this position is intensified due to the tension of the inflamed abdominal tissues, as well as the displacement of the appendix and the caecum.
Symptom of Bartome-Michelson - in the same position( on the left side) palpation is performed. Strengthening of pain in this case also indicates the presence of an inflammatory process.
Obraztsov's symptom is one of the simplest and most common diagnostic methods. It is enough to lie on your back and try to raise your right leg straightened - the increase in pain in this case speaks of appendicitis.
Symptom Resurrection - to ensure an even slide of the hand the doctor should stretch the shirt of the patient for the lower edge. After that, the patient takes a breath, and the doctor, applying moderate pressure on the stomach with his fingertips, performs a rapid movement of the hand from top to bottom to the right ileal region. The hand slides over the belly due to the stretched fabric. Appendicitis is characterized by a sharp increase in pain at the moment when the movement is over.
After an accurate diagnosis, the operation is almost immediately assigned. Appendicitis is not a disease with which one can afford to lose time in some cases, even lost several hours can "cost a lot" to the patient. That is why it should be remembered that appendicitis can not be "endured" - it will not pass by itself. Treatment in this case is always exclusively surgical.
The traditional method of treatment with appendicitis is quite simple - in the right side( in the area of the appendix) a cut of muscle tissues up to 8 centimeters long is performed. Through this incision, the doctor also examines the appendix and surrounding tissues for inflammation, the outgrowth is removed, and the area of attachment of the appendix with the rectum is sutured.
- Pain in the left side of the abdomen
- Inflammation of the appendages treated with