The problem of onochryptosis( in the form of "ingrown nail") is the most common in modern aesthetic medicine, and it gives a lot of inconvenience to its owners. The edge of the nail plate, which grows into the soft tissues of the okolonogtevogo roller, causes painful sensations, which are accompanied by reddening and swelling of the finger. Therefore, to start treatment as quickly as possible. The most effective treatment for today is the treatment of ingrown nail with a laser.
What is onychriptosis?
Onychroptosis or ingrown nail is an infectious disease caused by deformation of the nail plate and its ingrowth into the soft tissues of the nail roller followed by their inflammation. Simply put, when the edge of the nail on one or both sides grows into the skin of the thumbs of both feet. This pathology is associated with a violation of the function of nail growth, namely with the growth of the nail plate in width under the influence of negative factors.
The first signs of ingrown nails are reddening of the skin and minor painful sensations when pressing on a nail or nail roller. If you do not give these signs the proper value, the disease will progress - there will be swelling of the skin around the nail, followed by an infectious disease and the release of pus at the site of ingrowth, and further suppuration forms a bleeding cyanotic tumor. Thus, finger with ingrown nail is constantly under pressure, significantly increases in size, which prevents normal walking and wearing habitual shoes.
Infectious diseases in a neglected stage always cause a lot of trouble, and in the case of feet, they can lead to serious consequences. Therefore, in order to avoid the development of onochryptosis, it is necessary to adhere to preventive measures - follow the rules of foot hygiene and, if necessary, contact specialists for help in due time.
Causes of ingrown nail
Onihokryptoz is much more common in women than in men, which is primarily due not to a genetic predisposition, but to a specific lifestyle. It is women who tend to wear tight shoes that cause dysfunction of growth and deformation of the nail plate.
According to doctors, the main cause of ingrown nails is associated with a genetic predisposition. However, they can also occur as a result of flat feet, fungal infection of the toes, improper treatment of toe injury, lack of calcium during the formation of the nail or the constant wearing of uncomfortable, cramped and substandard footwear that causes sweating of the legs. Most often, the ingrowth of the nail into the skin results in improper performance of the pedicure, when the nail is cut too deep at the edges.
Becoming a cause of onochrytosis can be overweight, causing a greater strain on the legs. For example, during pregnancy due to weight gain, women often suffer from ingrown nails. Also at risk are people whose professional activities are associated with increased stress on the lower limbs.
An important role is assigned to the anatomical structure of the toes: if they are large, with large nail ridges, the probability of the ingrown nail is large enough. In this case, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the nails on the legs, do a regular pedicure with an experienced master.
Symptoms of ingrown nail
The degree of severity of symptoms may depend on the neglect of the disease and the period of its course. The main symptom of onochryptosis is a constant pain in the nail and nail roller area, which is enhanced by wearing shoes and walking. There is a sensitivity to the pressure of any kind, even from the weight of the blanket or sheet. At the very beginning of the disease, during a primary examination, you can see a small sore at the site of ingrowth of the nail. With further development of the disease( which occurs quickly enough), the infection is attached - its signs include reddening and swelling of the area around the nail, an increase in the temperature of the skin surface at the site of ingrowth, the release of purulent masses and fluid with a trace of blood. After the pathological growth of the granulation tissues( "wild meat") begins at the site of the trauma, the disease passes into the chronic stage, which significantly complicates the walking process due to the formed edema from the ingrowth.
Complications of ingrown nail
The most common complications of onochryptosis occur in the chronic course of the disease, resulting in the development of:
- The abscess of the toe , requiring surgical intervention. It is an inflammation of the soft tissues of the finger, accompanied by the release of purulent masses, swelling of the entire nail phalanx;
- Lymphangitis and lymphadenitis is the spread of infection through the lymphatic vessels, followed by inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes. It is accompanied by severe pain;
- Osteomyelitis of the nail phalanx is a purulent-necrotic process that affects the bone. This pathology is very difficult to treat and often causes the amputation of the phalanx of the finger. It can be identified only by radiography.
- Gangrene toes - irreversible necrosis of the limb segment, accompanied by a blackening of the skin. The only possible treatment is amputation of the affected area( phalanx of the finger or the entire finger).
Examination with ingrown nails
If such symptoms are detected, the surgeon must immediately be consulted so that he can perform the appropriate examination and choose a further method for correcting ingrown nails. First of all, you need to pass a general blood test, which will determine the severity of inflammation. If the disease is at a neglected stage, it may be necessary to undergo radiography of the foot bones, since there is a risk of a purulent process shifting to the bone, which threatens imminent amputation. If there is a fungal infection, a dermatologist will need consultation, since treating an ingrown nail is meaningless without eliminating the cause of its appearance.
Correction of ingrown nail
Timely correction of ingrown nail plate avoids many serious complications, the most dangerous of which is the transition of the purulent process to the bony tissue of the phalanx of the finger, which threatens with inevitable amputation. In addition, a prolonged absence of treatment for onochryptosis can cause a chronic course of the pathology, which will significantly complicate the process of recovery.
To date, there are several methods for treating onychrictosis:
- Surgical intervention;
- Correction of the nail plate with laser( laser treatment);
- Radio wave therapy.
Until recently, surgical intervention was considered the most effective method of correction of this pathology, therefore it was widely used to treat ingrown nails in many centers of aesthetic surgery. But surgical removal of the nail plate was accompanied by high traumatism, and there was a risk of re-breaking up of onychroptosis. Therefore, today the method of correction is practically not used.
He was replaced by less traumatic ways to treat ingrown nails - laser and radio wave therapy.
Treatment of ingrown nail laser
Modern laser technology allows you to get rid of onychriptosis as quickly and without unnecessary trauma - restore the nail growth function and soft tissues of the peri-oral groove. Under the influence of carbon dioxide( CO2), the complete removal of the affected area of the nail plate and the pathological layers of the peri-oral fenula is done, suppuration is eliminated without the use of any auxiliary means. Simply put, a carbon dioxide laser evaporates the pathogenic area without damaging the healthy nails surrounding the nail.
At the same time, the laser beam coagulates the vessels, allowing almost completely to avoid loss of blood. Thus, the recovery period after laser correction of ingrown nail is significantly reduced, and it will not take more than 3 days. Advantages of laser correction of ingrown nail
- High efficiency;
- Short rehabilitation period;
- Low level of injuries;
- Relative painlessness;
- Low recurrence rate.
How the laser correction procedureis performed
Laser treatment of onochryptosis is performed on an outpatient basis in several stages: first the doctor conducts a full examination of the affected finger and conducts an anamnesis, then draws conclusions about the need for radiographic examination. It is important to conduct an analysis to determine the level of sugar in the blood to exclude diabetes. In addition, it is important to exclude the presence and obliterating atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities. These diseases prevent the normal blood supply to the soft tissues of the fingers, which makes it impossible to use laser correction for ingrown nails.
For the correction of ingrown nail laser is used local anesthesia. The operation itself takes no more than 20 minutes, but with neglected cases, the laser exposure time to the pathogenic area may increase. The advantage of this method of treatment is the absence of any complications.
Reviews of laser correction of ingrown nail
The reviews of patients who underwent laser treatment of onychriptosis are mostly positive. Those who had to undergo the surgical treatment of the treatment of ingrown nails prior to laser correction are especially impressed by the speed of the rehabilitation period, which allows us to return to the habitual way of life the very next day after laser removal. In addition, many patients note the comparative painlessness of laser therapy, although the use of pain medication is still necessary.
Another plus that distinguishes laser treatment of onychriptosis from surgery is the absence of relapses( on the finger where the operation was performed), while in surgical treatment the probability of re-ingrowing the nail into the skin is high.
Of the shortcomings of the procedure, it should be noted only that the laser treatment of onochryptosis has a high cost, therefore not everyone who needs can use this method.
Prevention of ingrown nail
For the prevention of ingrown nails, it is necessary to follow several simple rules:
- Wear only quality free breathable shoes that do not constrain the foot in a state of rest and walking.
- Timely treatment of orthopedic diseases, such as flat feet.
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene( use a personal towel for the feet, every day before going to bed wash your feet).In addition, when you visit the pool, sauna or bath, it is important to walk in special shoes - slates or slippers. Strange shoes should never be worn!
- When a fungal infection of the foot occurs, do not neglect the help of a dermatologist.
- Observe the rules for the performance of a pedicure( nail cutting): with straight sharp scissors for manicure, perform cutting the nail in a straight line, not dropping below the tip of the finger. The trimmed nail needs to be filed with a nail file both from above, and on corners that will allow to avoid a trauma of a skin. In the absence of skills, it is better to take the help of an experienced master.
- Treatment of atherosclerosis of lower extremities vessels
- Tablets from foot nail fungus
- Foot swelling what to do