Serous meningitis is an infectious disease, accompanied by severe headache and fever, vomiting and chills. When the disease affects the shell of the brain. Very rarely, these diseases affect adults and schoolchildren. The most common disease occurs among young children, because they have weaker immunity and more children themselves are more careless, they do not follow the rules of personal hygiene. Babies up to 6 months are not sick at all, since they still have very strong immunity, received from a mother with a birth.
The peak of the disease usually occurs in the summer, so it makes sense to call the disease seasonal. Particularly common are cases in children's camps, where children actively contact, do not wash their hands, bathe in water.
Epidemiology of serous meningitis According to the etiology, fungal, viral and bacterial varieties of meningitis are isolated, primary and secondary. Primary meningitis is not preceded by any other infectious disease. Secondary meningitis usually occurs as a complication of the disease. According to studies, 80% of cases are caused by viruses. The main causative agent is the enterovirus Echo and Coxsackie, choriomeningitis, adenovirus. The causative agent of secondary meningitis is the viruses of measles, poliomyelitis, mumps, tuberculosis. Meningitis, which has arisen against the background of the bacterial flora, is purulent. The virus penetrates the meninges and causes a serous inflammatory process. Recent years have seen outbreaks of meningitis among children, which was caused by enterovirus. The cells of this virus are in the world around us, and the living environment is the human stomach.
Etiology of serous meningitis
According to the etiology, fungal, viral and bacterial varieties of meningitis are isolated, primary and secondary. Primary meningitis is not preceded by any other infectious disease. Secondary meningitis usually occurs as a complication of the disease. According to studies, 80% of cases are caused by viruses. The main causative agent is the enterovirus Echo and Coxsackie, choriomeningitis, adenovirus. The causative agent of secondary meningitis is the viruses of measles, poliomyelitis, mumps, tuberculosis. Meningitis, which has arisen against the background of the bacterial flora, is purulent. The virus penetrates the meninges and causes a serous inflammatory process. Recent years have seen outbreaks of meningitis among children, which was caused by enterovirus. The cells of this virus are in the world around us, and the living environment is the human stomach.
Enterovirus affects not only the cells of the digestive system, but also the tissues of internal organs and the brain. The virus penetrates into the brain envelopes, actively multiplying in their cells, changes the hemodynamics of the vessels, which causes the release of a large number of salts and water from the bloodstream into the cerebrospinal fluid. There is an increase in its volume and as a consequence of craniocerebral pressure. Serous effusion is formed, the membranes of the brain thicken and edema develops. But it should be noted that serous meningitis is not as dangerous as purulent bacterial and does not lead to the death of brain cells. Usually the outcome is favorable.
Infection, incubation period
Meningitis is considered to be a contagious inflammatory process. Until a certain time, it had a sufficiently high epidemiological threshold, since it was associated with outbreaks of polio. But since the 1960s, vaccination against poliomyelitis has become widespread, which has led to a reduction in the incidence of this disease. But it is in summer and early autumn that cases of meningitis are still registered, especially among children.
Meningitis is transmitted in several ways. But first of all from a virus carrier-a sick person. Mostly transmitted by airborne droplets, less often oral-fecal. Very rarely meningitis is transmitted from mother to fetus. This way is infected, I'm called placental. The virus enters the bloodstream, and then into the serous membranes of the brain. So, the virus is transmitted through phlegm, nasal mucus, saliva and less often through feces. In general, the virus of serous meningitis is transmitted through dirty hands and through unwashed vegetables and fruits. If an adult had contact with an infected person, he would rather get a viral infection. But children are more likely to be infected with meningitis, since their immune system is not fully formed.
Serious meningitis is characterized by a sharp onset of the disease. The temperature rises to a mark of 39-40 degrees. The patient complains of a severe headache, especially in the frontotemporal part, soreness with eye movement, repeated vomiting. Pain is not relieved by painkillers. In young children, convulsions of the limbs, delirium, hallucinations, loss of consciousness can be observed. There is also general weakness, irritability, pain in the muscles. The child becomes whimsical and whiny. In 30-40% there is a transient focal symptom-paresis of the facial nerve according to the central type, ataxia and dizziness.
The patient becomes lighter in a darkened room, if he falls on his side and presses his legs to his chin, his head is thrown back. Infants swell and protrude fontanel, there is a syndrome of suspended state, in which, if the child is lifted up, taking under the mouse, he raises his legs. When examining a sick child, the symptom is also the increased tension of the neck muscles, not the ability to squeeze the chin to the chest-the so-called rigidity.
In addition, some peculiar symptoms are observed in patients with serous meningitis, for example Symptom Kernig-the impossibility to unbend the leg bent at right angles, the symptom of Brudzinsky- if the head is bent, then the legs are bent too, if you unbend the bent leg, it reflexesthe second leg.
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid usually shows an elevated white blood cell count, and proteins are significantly reduced. A blood test reveals leukocytosis, a significant increase in young forms of neutrophils. Blood proteins are increased.
The disease usually weakens on day 5 and finally passes through 1-2 weeks. Rarely there can be two waves of the disease. It should be remembered that the symptoms can be expressed in greater or lesser form, it all depends on the course of the disease. Very rarely there are generalized lesions of other organs. Symptoms of serous meningitis are similar to symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis, a flash of which also occurs during the summer swimming season. After the disease, children may have some headaches for a while. The child should be under the neurologist's supervision for a while after the illness.
If possible, treatment should be started as soon as possible. At the first signs-a headache, fever, abdominal pain, an ambulance crew should be called immediately. Treatment of serous meningitis occurs in a hospital under the supervision of specialists.
Treatment is not advisable to carry out antibiotics, since the causative agents of the disease are viruses. However, it should be noted that if the diagnosis is incorrectly made or if the diagnosis is not clarified, antibiotics are still prescribed. When providing medical assistance, antiviral drugs such as arpetol, interferon are used. In cases where meningitis was caused by the herpes virus or Epstein-Barr, the use of Acyclovir is advisable. Patients with immunocompromised immunity, as well as infants, are given immunoglobulin intravenously.
Removal of intracranial pressure and cerebral edema is important. As a diuretic, furosemide and lasix are used. In some cases, the appointment of corticosteroids takes place. Also therapeutic lumbar punctures are performed. To reduce the temperature, paracetamol and ibuprofen are used.
Cetrin, Zodak, Suprastin, Tavegil-antihistamines, are prescribed as a comprehensive treatment of meningitis in children. They relieve fever, relieve the symptoms of meningitis. If there are convulsions, the doctor appoints Seduxen or Housewife. With any viral disease, immunity decreases. For rapid recovery and reduce the possibility of complications, complex vitamin therapy is of great importance. A course of vitamin C, cocarboxylase, B2, B6 is prescribed. As an additional procedure, contributing to the speedy recovery, oxygen therapy is prescribed - oxygen treatment.
Patient shows rest, bed rest, it is recommended to stay in a darkened room. An additional recommendation will also be observance of the regime of day, sleep and rest.
The products used by patients should be rich in vitamins and amino acids, all the necessary trace elements. And the menu should be balanced and full.
With the timely provision of medical care and compliance with all prescriptions of the doctor, serous meningitis does not last long, does not cause complications and is benign. However, there are cases of relapses. Such as cerebral-headaches, fatigue. Also, sometimes there is nervousness, irritability, sensitivity, emotional instability, increased pressure. Complications of serous meningitis can manifest themselves in a later period, in a year or two. This is due to non-compliance during illness bed rest, as well as premature physical, mental and emotional stress. Thus it is worth noting that the main treatment after discharge is compliance with all the doctor's recommendations and a sparing regimen.
Prevention of serous meningitis
Since infection with the virus of serous meningitis occurs due to the use of contaminated products, it is recommended to buy products in proven supermarkets, grocery stores to avoid contamination. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets, so avoid contact with patients with acute respiratory viral infection, influenza. At the first signs of the disease, you should immediately consult a doctor, the patient should be isolated to avoid contamination of relatives and other surrounding people. A good prevention is immunotherapy-taking interferon three times a day. If a sick child has attended preschool or school, quarantine is declared there and all premises are disinfected. Houses are also being treated with 3% chloramine solution. Premises are ventilated.
Children from an early age should be taught personal hygiene. Schools should introduce a rule of washing their hands before visiting the canteen, and supervisors should monitor the implementation of this rule by students and control by the teacher. Fulfillment of all necessary hygiene rules will help avoid infection not only with this disease, but timely treatment in a medical institution will accelerate recovery and make the course of the disease less acute and complicated.
- Symptoms of pneumonia in children
- Severe stomach pains