Thanks to our brain, we not only can think and solve important problems, but we also move, breathe and, in general, live. It is this body that processes information and sends signals to all tissues, organs and systems of the body. But, unfortunately, some pathologies can disrupt brain activity. One of them is an arachnoid cyst of the brain.
- What is it?
- Reasons for
- Symptoms of
- Treatment of
- Consequences and predictions of
What is it?
In general, the cyst of the brain is a neoplasm, which is a bubble or capsule filled with a liquid. About 4% of the population puts such a diagnosis, but some do not even know about the pathology and can live this way all their life. In fact, it is not dangerous( as a rule, cysts do not degenerate into cancer tumors), but it should be noted that these neoplasms can have quite impressive dimensions and pinch adjacent organs and tissues. The cyst can be formed in different parts of the body, it is often localized in the area of the brain.
Depending on the location of the tumor, two types are distinguished:
- The retrocellular cyst of the brain is located directly in the brain tissues. As a rule, it is a capsular site localized in place of dead cells. In this case, the liquid forms in the interstitial space. It is worth noting that retrocellular cyst is dangerous because it can grow and lead to the death of brain cells, which is extremely dangerous.
- Arachnoid is formed not in the brain tissues, but between the membranes, in particular, in the arachnoid, localized between the solid superficial upper cerebral layer and the pink deep soft membrane.
There are two types of arachnoid cysts:
- Primary ones are formed directly in the period of fetal development and are caused by the influence on the fetus of negative factors.
- Secondary( or acquired) is a consequence of the transferred diseases, injuries or surgical interventions.
The arachnoid cyst of the brain is formed gradually. It can grow in size. Several factors influence growth:
- inflammatory processes localized in the brain tissues;
- injuries and bruises( for example, a patient with a cyst after a concussion can begin active growth);
- increased fluid pressure inside the neoplasm( this often depends on the site of the localization of the bladder).
With regard to the location, then, in fact, it can be anything, but more often such neoplasms are localized in the cranial fossa, temporal lobes or on the surface of the brain.
We list the main causes of the appearance of arachnoid cysts:
- In the case of primary neoplasms, they arise during fetal development. Formation can begin because of the effects on the fetus of chemical or toxic substances( for example, if the future mother lives in unfavorable environmental conditions or works during harmful periods in harmful production).
- If a woman takes certain medications, then their components can also affect the development of the brain of the future child.
- Harmful radiation during the period of gestation can also lead to the development of cysts.
- A secondary cyst may occur due to an infectious disease affecting the brain tissue, for example, because of meningitis or encephalitis.
- Damage to tissues is also a negative factor. Particularly dangerous shocks, as well as severe bruises and bruises.
- Some surgical interventions may be dangerous from this point of view.
- Violation of the cerebral circulation( due to stroke and other problems) can lead to the formation of a cyst.
Manifestations are not always obvious, but in most cases they are completely absent. So, the symptomatology is observed only in 20-25% of cases. It can be nonspecific, so it's very easy to get confused. Specific signs will depend, first, on the location of the neoplasm, secondly, on the size. So, if important areas are squeezed, then it will hardly be noticed.
We list some possible manifestations:
- Vertigo. They appear quite often and do not depend on the time of day and the factors of influence( intoxication, some diseases).
- Nausea and vomiting. Such symptoms do not depend on the digestive tract and can occur quite often.
- Convulsions, involuntary contraction or twitching of muscles.
- Headaches. Sensations can be quite strong and sharp.
- In some cases, there are violations of coordination.
Sensations of raspiraniya or ripple inside the head. There may be a feeling of heaviness or squeezing.
- Visual or visual impairment.
- Numbness in the extremities or in certain areas of the body may be observed.
- Unpleasant sensations will intensify when the head moves.
- Some people constantly hear noise in their ears.
- Often there are memory problems.
- Speech may break.
Since the brain is located in the skull, the retrocebellar or arachnoid cyst of the brain can not be detected on a routine examination. Special diagnostic procedures are required:
- Magnetic resonance imaging will detect neoplasm, as well as find out its size and location.
- Computer tomography is also often used, with the help of which it is possible to obtain accurate data on the state of brain tissue.
- To distinguish cancers from cysts, special contrast agents can be used. In cancerous tumors they will accumulate, and in the cystic cavity - no.
But it's not enough just to find a cyst. It is important to establish the reasons for its occurrence, which will help to avoid active growth of the tumor and prevent the formation of new foci. So the doctor will prescribe a blood test for the detection of infections. Also, dopplerography of vessels, which makes it possible to evaluate their patency, will be superfluous.
If the arachnoid cyst of the brain is small, does not increase and does not pose a threat to human health and life, then there will be enough constant dynamic observation. It is also important to identify and eliminate the cause of education and eliminate it. In addition, the impact of possible negative factors should also be minimized. In this case, a person can safely live for many years and not worry about anything.
But in some cases immediate action is required:
- Neophyte grows rapidly.
- Intracranial pressure increases.
- Cyst of the brain can break.
- Obvious manifestations that disturb the patient.
As for the methods of treatment, only surgical ones are applicable. Several options are possible:
- Draining. It consists in removing excess fluid from the cystic cavity, which naturally reduces the size and minimizes the negative impact. In the skull with the help of a special thin needle a puncture is made through which the liquid is removed.
- Bypass surgery may be required. A drainage is created, through which the outflow of liquid will take place.
- If all measures were unsuccessful, then excision of the cyst( fenestration) will be required. The method of removal will depend on the location of the neoplasm and its size. So, if a small cyst of the brain is located in the anterior part, then an endoscopic operation is possible. Through natural paths, an endoscope with a camera and manipulators with a scalpel and a clamp will be introduced, which will allow finding, removing and removing the tumor. If the dimensions are impressive and penetration to the outbreak through natural paths is impossible, then trepanation( opening of the cranium) with subsequent removal is required. It's quite traumatic, but sometimes it's just necessary.
Consequences and predictions of
Both the cerebellar and the arachnoid cyst of the brain can be dangerous. So, with active growth, it can squeeze important areas of the brain tissue responsible for vital functions. Because of this, the cells will die, which in time will lead to brain death.
But even after an untimely operation, there may be undesirable consequences in the form of violations of certain functions( if important areas are hurt, and this is possible).
Cyst of the brain - it's dangerous! In time, contact your doctor to stay healthy!