There are incredibly many diverse pathogens in the world. Some of them enter the body through the respiratory tract, others penetrate in another way. And what is mycoplasma hominis? What diseases can occur in the presence of mycoplasma in the body?
Table of contents:
- What is it?
- Transmission routes
- What diseases causes mycoplasma?
- Is it dangerous?
- Manifestations of
- How to treat?
What is it?
Mycoplasma hominis is the smallest bacterium related to mycoplasma. About 16 kinds of mycoplasmas can be found in the human body. Some live in the respiratory tract and cause their defeat, while others affect the genitourinary system. The bacterium described here is the latter. It is fairly well studied by scientists, so the symptoms of infection and methods of treatment are known.
The bacterium belongs to the group of conditionally pathogenic ones. It may well provoke the development of certain diseases, but only in certain cases and under special conditions. At the same time, some have absolutely no symptoms, and mycoplasma is detected only with a planned examination.
It should be noted that more often mycoplasmas are found in female representatives, although they are met in men, but less often. Thus, approximately 25-30% of women are carriers of bacteria, among the male population this figure is 5-10%.
There are two transmission paths:
- More often mycoplasma enters the body during sexual intercourse( unprotected) with a human carrier. And the sexual way is the most common. The risk of infection in women is higher than that of men. Thus, the probability of contracting a partner with unprotected sex is 70-90%.
- Another way of transmission - from mother to child. In this way, girls are more often infected. Mycoplasma comes from the vagina of a woman in the body of a newborn when passing through the birth canal.
Domestic and airborne droplets are not possible.
What causes mycoplasma?
Mycoplasma hominis, as a rule, lives in the human genitourinary system, so that it can cause diseases of this particular system. Here are some of them:
- Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory kidney disease.
- Urethritis. The area of inflammation is located in the urethra. The disease occurs in representatives of both sexes.
- Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder.
- Prostatitis can also develop, but it does not occur often, in addition, the effect of mycoplasma on the prostate is not proven, so, most likely, such a disease in most cases is a complication.
- Inflammatory diseases of the ovaries and uterus.
- Gardnerellez( bacterial vaginosis) - an ailment associated with a violation of the microflora of the vagina.
It is worth noting that a person who has mycoplasma in his body does not necessarily fall ill. Such a bacterium can exist within us for many years and does not manifest itself. Surprisingly, even cases of self-healing are known. But with the influence of negative factors( such as reduced immunity, hypothermia, certain diseases, etc.) mycoplasma can become more active and trigger an inflammatory process.
Is it dangerous?
Is mycoplasma hominis dangerous? A fatal outcome is impossible, but still there are some other dangers:
- In pregnancy, mycoplasma can cause premature birth or miscarriage, as well as fetal pathologies.
- Such bacteria can affect the viability of spermatozoa, so that in the absence of treatment can provoke problems and difficulties with conception and even infertility in men.
- If inflammation of the uterus or ovaries is not eliminated, adhesions can begin. A spike is a difficulty in conceiving and bearing a child.
How to understand that mycoplasma lives in your body? Symptoms will depend on the specific disease caused by the bacterium. Here are some of the characteristic signs of various ailments:
- With urethritis, there is quite a burning sensation when urinating, sometimes painful and frequent urge to empty the bladder. There may also be purulent discharge from the urethra, often with a putrid odor. In this case, the external genitalia( namely the labia and vagina of the female half of humanity and the head of the penis in men) turn red, itch. In men in sperm or urine, blood spots can be found. The color and smell of urine can change.
- With pyelonephritis, there will be pain in the back area( in particular, the lower back), urination will break, the skin may be pale. Often there are nausea, increased sweating and headache. There is also a sharp and significant increase in body temperature.
- Cystitis is characterized by pain and discomfort in the abdomen, painful, rapid urination, burning and discomfort when going to the toilet, frequent urges and almost constant feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder.
- Vaginosis is often accompanied by pathological and abnormal copious and unpleasant smelling discharge from the vagina. Sometimes there is redness and itching.
- Inflammations of female internal genitalia will result in malfunctions of the menstrual cycle, periodic or persistent bloody discharge, abdominal pain( in the lower part), and other manifestations.
How is mycoplasma hominis detected? There are several ways to diagnose:
- In some cases, an effective urine test( if bacteria live in the urethra or in the bladder).
- SowingFirst, a swab is taken from the vagina or from the urethra. Then the contents are placed in a special medium, in which the mycoplasmas are found.
- PCR is a polymerase chain reaction. This analysis is based on complex reactions involving fragments of the DNA of the microorganism, which allow us to identify the bacteria.
- PIF( direct immunofluorescence).The contents of the smear are stained with special compositions with labeled antibodies, which allow detecting and revealing bacteria.
- ELISA( enzyme immunoassay) helps to identify antibodies to mycoplasmas in the human blood. But this method is not always accurate in all cases, since antibodies are not always produced in the presence of bacteria in the body.
How to treat?
How is mycoplasma hominis treated? There are several directions:
- Antibiotic therapy is a fundamental direction of treatment, since mycoplasma is a bacterium. Drugs are selected individually, sometimes assigned several at the same time. It is important to follow all the doctor's recommendations. In addition, both partners should take the course of treatment.
- With strong pains or frequent urge to urinate( all of which is triggered by spasms), antispasmodics may be prescribed.
- With urethritis, a doctor can prescribe the instillation of the urethra, that is, the administration of drugs and medicines directly into the urethra.
- For gardnerellosis, local treatment with anti-inflammatory and antipruritic drugs may be prescribed.
- In some cases, physiotherapy procedures are effective.
After the treatment, you definitely need to pass control tests, this will help to make sure that mycoplasma is defeated.
How not to catch mycoplasma hominis?
The most important and almost unique measure of prevention is the use of contraceptives, that is, condoms.
Only in this case you will protect yourself.
Observe preventive measures, consult a doctor on time if symptoms are found and promptly treat, following the advice of a specialist. Health to you!
- Bloody discharge after sex