Cardiac arrhythmia is a violation of the correct frequency, rhythm and regularity of cardiac contractions. It is believed that in a calm state in an adult healthy person, the heart is reduced approximately 55-80 times per minute. The normal heart rate has a relatively wide range. This physiological indicator reacts not only to physical exertion, but also to the emotional state of a person.
In this case, cardiac contractions occur at regular intervals and at a certain frequency - this is a normal heart rhythm. When the intervals between contractions are irregular, a person needs a diagnosis, and possibly treatment of cardiac arrhythmia, because this is her first symptom.
Features of the disease and the causes of its appearance
Heart rhythm disorders often develop when the heart is affected. Thus, the presence of arrhythmia may indicate congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, or chronic ischemic disease. It is worth noting that in most cases, sinus arrhythmia of the heart indicates a high risk of myocardial infarction.
Depending on the found heart rate abnormalities, specialists distinguish several types of this pathology:
- tachycardia - increased heart rate;
- bradycardia - slowing of normal heartbeat;
- extrasystole is an untimely contraction of the heart muscle.
In the opinion of the majority of physicians, the severity of arrhythmia may absolutely not correspond to the severity of the possible diseases, the sign of which it acts. In addition to various pathological conditions, cardiac rhythm failures can also occur as a result of metabolic disturbances in the body.
Cardiac arrhythmia can develop both against the background of heart disease, and when other systems of the body are disturbed. So, very often the normal heart rate is disturbed due to pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and / or respiratory systems. In some cases, the occurrence of arrhythmia is provoked by alcohol, nicotine or drug intoxication.
Sometimes arrhythmia occurs when metabolic disorders, sclerotic lesions of various organs of the body, abnormal electrolytic balance and lack of oxygen in the blood. Even innocuous, at first glance, reasons can cause malfunctions in the normal heart rate. The latter include regular stressful situations, the side effect of certain drugs, overeating, chronic constipation and even wearing tight clothes.
Separately, it should be noted that identifying the exact cause of arrhythmia is a major task for specialists. After all, only knowing the exact cause of this condition, doctors can correct it and normalize a person's condition.
Clinical signs of arrhythmia
Man can detect arrhythmia even on his own. As indicated above, with the normal operation of the heart muscle, the frequency of its contractions does not increase the standard established by physicians. In addition, if the heart is working normally, a person simply does not feel his strokes in a calm state.
Specialists attribute the feeling of their own heartbeat to the clinical signs of cardiac arrhythmia. So, if a person does not feel the rhythmic strokes of the heart, fading or a heartbeat that leads to discomfort - perhaps he should immediately seek help. This, the most obvious sign of arrhythmia can be combined with pain in the region of the heart, sudden fainting and a feeling of general weakness in the body.
Treatment of pathology
In such a disease as cardiac arrhythmia, treatment depends largely on its type and the severity of the patient's condition. For example, some people suffering from heart rhythm disorders do not need therapy at all, because their body perceives a medically disturbed heartbeat as normal. If treatment of cardiac arrhythmia is still necessary for a person, doctors can prescribe certain medications and specific surgical interventions within the heart. In most cases, arrhythmias, experts recommend that patients change their lifestyle.
With the medical treatment of arrhythmias, various antiarrhythmic drugs are usually prescribed, which contain beta-blockers, designed to control the frequency of heart contractions. The patient may also be prescribed anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy - drugs related to this group, reduce the risk of developing the patient's strokes and blood clots.
Since almost all medications have an individual effect on the human body, the doctor may need some time to select the right drug. The same applies to the dosage of drugs, which is selected based on the individual state of the body and the form of the disease.
When a person discovers that changes in the heart rate and his deviations from the norm most often occur in him in a certain situation, the doctor can recommend him to change the habitual way of life a little.
This includes refusal of smoking and strong spirits, limiting intense physical activity and reducing the amount of caffeine consumed. It is noteworthy that some people have an increased sensitivity to caffeine. Typically, in this case, the patient signs of arrhythmia appear precisely when consuming products in which this substance is present.
In addition, patients with a diagnosed form of arrhythmia should avoid using stimulants used for cough and cold remedies. In the composition of such medications most often there are substances provoking the development of an abnormal heart rhythm. In any case, before taking any tablets, always need to carefully study the instructions to them. With arrhythmia, it is advisable to consult a doctor and / or a pharmacist about exactly what drugs can be used in this condition.
Surgical treatment and other procedures
In the case when prescribed medications are not able to constantly monitor the heart rhythm, specialists use a procedure called cardioversion. It is through this procedure that treatment of atrial fibrillation of the heart is carried out. When cardioversion is performed on the patient's chest, after the administration of a small dose of an anesthetic, they are electrocuted. This procedure is able to synchronize the work of the heart and restore the normal rhythm of contractions.
Surgical intervention may be necessary if the arrhythmia is caused by heart disease. For example, in the treatment of atrial arrhythmia by a surgical method, during the operation the doctor performs a series of cuts that limit the passage of electrical impulses along the conducting paths. After such an operation, some patients need to install a pacemaker - a device that maintains a normal heart rhythm with electrical impulses.
In some types of arrhythmia, ablation is possible, a procedure in which a catheter is conducted to a specific tissue site within the heart, through which a high-voltage electric current is applied to the heart. This procedure literally "disconnects" the pathways of the wrong rhythm, which stabilizes the heart rate.
In any case, one way or another method of treating arrhythmia is selected by a specialist who takes into account all important factors in this case - the general condition of the patient's body, the causes that caused the development of arrhythmias and much more.
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