Fibro-cystic disease of mammary glands, or mastopathy, is a benign disease, characterized by the appearance in their tissues of multiple cysts and seals. In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of this pathology.
A cyst is a cavity formation that is bounded from the outside by a capsule of connective tissue, and inside is filled with a liquid. It has an elastic consistency and from the surrounding tissue is delineated fairly clearly. Fibrously cystic mastopathy is a dyshormonal, that is, associated with a change in the hormonal balance, pathology. Another name for this pathology is fibroadenomatosis, but it is necessary to distinguish this disease from fibroadenoma - a benign neoplasm of the breast.
The pathogenesis of mastopathy has not been sufficiently studied. Only certain factors that contribute to its occurrence are known. Most often, such cysts are formed in the mammary gland tissue in the climacteric period, which is associated with the hormonal failure observed in the female body at this time, when a hormonal imbalance develops as a result of a significant predominance of the hormone estrogen. Against the background of a general weakening of protective forces in the body of a woman, there are disruptions in the functioning of individual organs, with the mammary glands becoming particularly susceptible.
The gland can be clogged, which prevents fluid( liquor) from passing through them, which begins to accumulate with a lobular structure of glandular tissue, thereby leading to the development of seals around these fluid accumulations. Also for the development of mastopathy, the level of hormones produced by the thyroid gland also matters. The causes of such disorders can be the following conditions: - various diseases of the ovaries and appendages, most often inflammation - adnexitis and oophoritis;- Thyroid gland diseases;- pathology of other glands of external and internal secretion;- liver disease, leading to a deterioration in the utilization of sex hormones. There are known cases of the emergence of a specific type of mastopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Mastopathy is manifested by such symptoms:
- painful sensations in the mammary glands intensifying before menstruation;
- presence in the mammary glands of grove-shaped nodal seals;
- discharge from the nipples.
Forms of mastopathy
Clinical manifestations distinguish between diffuse and nodular forms of mastopathy. Nodal often simulates a malignant disease that requires diagnostic surgical intervention - sectoral resection with histological examination of the neoplasm. According to the microscopic structure, the proliferative and nonproliferative forms are distinguished. Proliferative is characterized by intensive cell division, and when non-proliferative it is not observed. Due to the fact that proliferative forms with a higher probability are associated with the presence of a malignant process, they require a more attentive attitude towards themselves.
How dangerous is mastopathy?
The dangers of a woman's life, this disease does not represent. It can sometimes significantly reduce the quality of life, but a precancerous disease, that is, a pathology that can be transformed into cancer, is not. However, its nodular forms can simulate a malignant tumor. Often, mastopathy is a background for the development of cancer, given some common risk factors for mastopathy and malignant process.
If the suspicion of mastitis can be the following diagnostic procedures: - examination by specialized specialists( oncologist, mammologist and gynecologist);- ultrasound scanning of the mammary glands( if necessary, color duplex scanning for the study of blood flow);- mammography;- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland, ovaries and liver;- determination of the level of hormones( estrogens, prolactin, progesterone);- definition of oncomarkers;- puncture of the mammary gland and puncture biopsy.
For the timely detection of fibrocystic mastopathy, self-examination and palpitation of the mammary glands are of great importance. In case of detection in the mammary gland of any compaction and with soreness of the glands, it is necessary immediately to contact a mammalogist. The screening mammography also remains relevant.
In all cases, the treatment of fibrocystic mastopathy requires the need to be directed to the relief of symptoms, and to eliminate the cause of its occurrence, that is, it must be complex. For these purposes, the following medicines may be prescribed:
- , in cases where an increased or decreased function of the thyroid gland is detected, funds are allocated that regulate its activity;
- for the regulation of the menstrual cycle are often used oral contraceptives;
- in order to eliminate the effect on the mammary glands of estrogens in rare cases, only with pronounced hyperestrogenia in the presence of severe pain, estrogen antagonists can be prescribed;
- in cases when intermenstrual bleeding is observed against the background of mastopathy, progesterone preparations are prescribed.
In addition, complexes of vitamins and minerals, various homeopathic remedies, sedatives and analgesics are used. It is recommended to limit the use of strong black tea and coffee, to refrain from smoking, drinking alcohol and bitter chocolate. The diet should be rich in fruits and vegetables, which include vegetable fiber and vitamins. Popular use of food additives that contain vegetable fiber.
Surgery is performed if there is a suspicion of cancer, which can simulate, as mentioned above, the nodular form of this pathology. In all other cases, indications for surgical treatment are questionable. Cure mastopathy with surgery can only be if you remove the mammary glands radically. However, such treatment can not be considered acceptable. Treatment of the breast cyst in a number of cases, usually with frequent inflammation, may require sectoral resection of the gland, but this way it is possible to get rid of only the cyst, and not from mastopathy. The reason, namely, dyshormonal changes, will remain, and therefore in the future mastopathy will again manifest itself.
Treatment with folk remedies
Folk treatment of mastopathy involves the use of compresses based on various herbal remedies that have an anti-inflammatory effect, as well as the use of vegetable tinctures and decoctions that enhance immunity and sedatives.
The main preventive measures to be observed by a woman in order to prevent the development of mastopathy are as follows:
- the first delivery not later than 25 years;
- repeated delivery;
- breast-feeding for at least 5 months;
- regular sex life in one rhythm;
- proper nutrition;
- avoidance of stressful situations;
- limiting the effects on glandular tissue of direct sunlight;
- fight against obesity.
- Thyroid Throat
- Causes of Ovarian Cyst
- Inflammation of Appendages Symptoms