The term "lichen" is a fairly broad concept that encompasses a group of dermatological diseases that are accompanied by the appearance of spots on the skin and papules prone to peeling.
In this article we will try to understand the variety of forms of this pathology and answer the following questions: "How does a man have lichen? How can you recognize this dermatological disease in life and in the photo? What is the treatment of depriving a person? ".
- Epidemiological aspects of this type of dermatosis
- What are the causes of hair loss in humans?
- The main types of hair loss in humans
- Summary of the main types of lichen
- Basics of lepidaria treatment
Epidemiological aspects of this type of dermatosis
The prevalence of depriving among the population is quite high. Scientists noted that the greatest number of cases is registered in people of the age category from 30 to 70 years and in young children. Men and women suffer from the same frequency, without any advantage.
What are the causes of hair loss in humans?
All forms of lichen differ from each other in the form of the pathogen, as some species are caused by fungi, the latter by viruses, and third by bacteria. But they are all united by the main trigger mechanism of the disease development - a reduced immune response to the introduction of a pathogenic microorganism. Of the other provocative elements, it should be noted:
- hung life stress;
- the presence of genetic factors;
- history of allergic diseases;
- the presence of a hotbed of chronic infection in the body;
- excessive hypothermia or overheating of the body;
- presence of endocrine-metabolic disorders.
The main types of lichen in humans
The classification of this type of dermatoses is based on the peculiarities of the clinical picture of lichen. Given the morphological manifestations and localization, we can distinguish the following types of lichen:
pink lichen, which appears on the skin in the form of round or oval spots of pink, prone to peeling;
- shingles, accompanied by the appearance of characteristic vesicular rashes on the skin along the main nerve trunks;
- pityriasis lichen or multicolored lichen, which is manifested by rashes of various shapes and colors;
- ringworm, affecting mainly the skin with the presence of a hairy cover;
- is a red flat lichen, accompanied by the appearance on the skin of flat red diverse in form papules, which have a smooth surface with a slight depression in the center.
Brief description of the main types of lichen
Pink lichen is a dermatosis that is viral or infectious-allergic in nature. This type of lichen is not highly infectious, therefore the family nature of the disease is very rare. The peak incidence in humans falls on the period of spring-autumn, when the maximum number of colds that provoke the development of pink lichen. The course of dermatosis is cyclic, relapses are not observed. Most often, rashes of pink lichen appear on the lateral surface of the neck, thorax, on the back, and in children can be on the face, head. In the clinic, the appearance of a rash is preceded by a picture of an infectious process occurring with an increase in body temperature, general malaise, joint pain, and an aching all over the body. The precipitations of pink lichen are first accompanied by the appearance of a "mother" spot of pinkish color, from which the daughter elements extend to all sides in days 7-8.
The characteristic features of the rash are:
- location on the lines of skin tension,
- the presence of the symptom of "crumpled tissue paper",
- the location in the center of the stain of the sunken area.
Photo of rashes of this kind of dermatosis can be found in any textbook and on the Internet.
The duration of pink lichen is 6 to 9 weeks, and during this time a person has severe itching and discomfort in the area of rashes. But incorrectly selected treatment can lead to lengthening and chronization of the process.
Shingles are a dermatosis that causes water to be affected by a smallpox virus and is accompanied by a lesion of the prone sensitive nervous system. The main contingent of morbidity is people with a decreased immune status( HIV-infected, with malignant neoplasms, taking corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, elderly people).
When shingles occur in a person, the posterior roots of the spinal cord, intervertebral ganglia are affected with the development of febrile syndrome, intoxication, ganglionvrit and, in especially severe cases, meningoencephalitis. A photo depicting a rash of tinea can be distinguished simultaneously, since the vesicle rash is located along the sensory nerves and is shrouded in nature. At the same time, reddening of the skin initially appears, then on it bubbles with a liquid form, after opening of which small crusts are formed.
In the clinical picture of this form, there are also manifestations of vasomotor disorders, sensitivity disorders, Horner's syndrome. Treatment for this form of deprivation should begin immediately, since any delays can lead to serious complications.
Pityriasis is a dermatosis of a fungal nature, the causative agent of which is Phityrosporum orbiculare. This type of lichen is found mainly in countries with a hot and humid climate. Predisposing factor for the development of pityriasis is excessive sweating, which occurs in obese people, as well as with increasing ambient temperature. The rash is localized on the chest, back, neck, shoulders. It is represented by spots of a yellowish color, having an irregular shape and when scraped off give a small, otrigious peeling. As the process progresses, these elements merge with the development of the so-called "geographical map".If you take a photo of the affected area under the Voodoo lamp, you can see a specific yellow glow. Treatment of pityriasis in a person well passes against the prescription of antifungal drugs. But the main measure of prophylaxis of pityriasis is the fight with increased sweating.
Ringworm is a dermatophytosis with a predominant lesion of the skin with the presence of the hairline. The nature of ringworm is fungal, and the causative agent is anthropophilic trichophyton. This disease differs from other forms of increased infectiousness and in almost all cases is of a family nature. Transition fungal infection occurs when using common objects of everyday life( combs, hats, underwear).There are several forms of ringworm:
- superficial, with lesions of the scalp,
- trichophytosis of the nails,
- chronic form,
The main manifestations of ringworm are:
- peeling with the formation of gray scurvy scales,
- occurrence of foci of alopecia,
- hair breakdown at a level of 1-3 mm from the skin level,
- , eruptions with bubbles form at the sites of the rash.
Foci can be formed, except for the scalp, and in the region of the extremities, neck, face, trunk. In this case, there is a tendency to increase foci that have areas of baldness with an unpleasant odor. The maximum incidence of ringworm occurs in children. A photo with rashes of this species was seen in every person's life.
Red lichen is a dermatosis, based on the development of neurogenic, viral, infectious, allergic, endocrine mechanisms. This form is accompanied by damage to the mucous membranes, skin, rarely nails and hair. Localization of rashes is observed on the flexor surface of the forearm, trunk, shins, mouth mucosa, genital organs. In the photo in textbooks on dermatology, you can see papules of a red color, irregular in shape with an umbilical impression in the center. These waxes are characterized by waxy luster, the presence of a blood vein and plaques. Since lichen is of an allergic nature, the treatment goes well against the prescription of antihistamines.
Basics of treatment depriving
Because of the variety of forms depriving of its treatment is strictly individual and depending on the form:
- treatment of pink lichen consists in the appointment of antibacterial agents, since the etiology is infectious. But often the cure for this form goes on independently, without prescribing any medications. With prolonged flow, antibiotics, antihistamines, and vitamin complexes are prescribed. Locally used are antimicrobial ointments, chatterboxes and pastes.
- treatment of herpes zoster should be performed in a hospital under the supervision of doctors. Since it develops due to immunosuppression, it is mandatory to administer an immunoglobulin of 5 ml intramuscularly, ribovirin 15 mg per kg body weight intravenously and acyclovir. Locally used ointments with antibiotics.
- treatment of pitybearing and ringworm is based on the appointment of antimycotics, as these types of dermatosis are fungal in nature. For example, you can appoint griseofulvin tablets at 0.125 mg 3 times a day, Nizoral to 0.2 mg once a week, orongal 2 mg per kg of body weight for a month. Locally used miconazole ointment, cream "Lamisil", sernodegtyarnuyu ointment.
- Red lichen is treated with antihistamine drugs, antibacterial agents, quinoline derivatives( plaquelin, delagin), vitamins of groups A, E, immunomodulators. Locally prescribed ointments containing glucocorticoids, antibiotics.
- Rash on the back of a child