- Anatomical features of
- The causes of pain in the coccyx
- Diagnostic program
- Treatment of pain in the coccyx
It should be noted that because of the anatomical features of the structure of the pelvis in women and childbearing function, the fairer sex is several times more likely to experience cocciage than men. Pain in the coccyx region of the child is rare, since the average age of people experiencing this symptom is 35-55 years. Below, the most frequent causes of painful experiences and activities that will help them get rid of are discussed.
Anatomical features of
are often associated with pregnancy and often in the coccyx region. Anatomical features of
The coccyx is the terminal part of the spine, which is a small bone of triangular shape( the apex of the triangle is the tail of the coccyx),formed by 3-5 intergrown vertebrae. In humans this organ does not perform any function and is considered rudimentary. Once with the help of a coccyx, our ancestors attached a tail to the body.
However, this site contains a large number of nerve fibers, muscles and ligaments, the damage of which can cause prolonged and severe pain.
The epidermis is attached to the sacrum using a slow-moving sacrococcygeal joint. Due to this joint, the coccyx has the ability to swerve back during childbirth and increase the diameter of the birth canal of a woman.
It's important to know! It is the birth of a child that often causes a coccyx in women, because during the passage of the child through the birth canal the coccyx can deviate more than it can in the ordinary state( a large fetus, a narrow pelvis of the mother, rapid delivery).This causes a trauma - dislocation, subluxation, fracture, sprain, which subsequently causes chronic cocciogeny.
Some nerve fibers of the spinal cord that innervate the pelvic organs( uterus, bladder, ovaries), external genitalia, rectum and anus, skin of the perineum pass through the holes in the coccygeal bone. Often, the cause of the appearance of pain coccygeal syndrome are diseases of these organs due to joint innervation.
Several small ligaments and muscles are attached to the coccyx and they begin to take part in the functioning of the pelvic organs. Accordingly, diseases of these organs can be accompanied by pain in the coccygeal zone.
The coccyx is the final part of the human spine, which is a rudiment of the
. The reasons for the pain in the coccyx of the
. Consider why the coccyx can be affected and what to do about it.
Traumatic damage to the coccyx often occurs when falling on the buttocks, due to a direct blow to the coccyx or during delivery. In this case, you have to face his bruise, dislocation or fracture.
Immediately to distinguish these types of injuries is difficult. This will require additional examination techniques, since the symptoms are almost the same:
- edema, bruise, bruise at the site of the coccyx between the buttocks;
- severe pain that occurs at the time of injury, increases when trying to sit up and stand up, during defecation and sexual intimacy in women;
- in the case of a fracture on palpation can be noted crepitation - a specific sound and tactile phenomenon, which occurs due to the friction of each other bone fragments.
Hematoma in the coccyx region, which may indicate a bruise, dislocation or fracture
If a cone and severe pain, redness and swelling appear in the coccyx region, then a disease such as the coccygeal cyst or the epithelial coccygeal passage should be suspected. The essence of the pathology is as follows. In adipose tissue in the coccyx region there is a canal which, at one end, communicates with the coccygeal bone, while the other blindly terminates in the thickness of subcutaneous fat above the anus. This channel is lined with epithelial cells and opens outward through several holes strictly along the line of the interannual fold.
Some experts consider this disease to be congenital, while others indicate its connection with a tendency to ingrowth into the skin of the hair, which causes the formation of an epithelial course.
One way or another, while the illness does not bother its owner for a long time, it can be asymptomatic until death. But in the event that the contents of the canal are infected( bacteria enter through the holes described), an inflammatory process develops, which is accompanied by accumulation of pus within the epithelial course.
If this happens, patients complain about the coccyx swelling, redness and cones appear in his area, intense pain. In some cases, the pathology is accompanied by general symptoms - fever, general weakness, muscle pain and other signs of intoxication of the body. To treat such a complicated coccygeal cyst is necessary surgically.
This is a complicated epithelial coccygeal passage
This is a fairly common cause of chronic coccidia, but for some reason many people forget about it and do not take it seriously. If the body mass index increases to 30 or more, the risk of chronic coccygeal syndrome is significantly increased. The fact is that excess fat tissue in the buttock area leads to an incorrect position of the pelvis in the position of the person sitting, increased strain on the coccygeal bone and its subluxation.
If the described situation also coincides with sedentary work, then the development of cocciogeny in such a person is very likely.
Degenerative and dystrophic lesions of the lumbosacral spine can lead to the pain of the coccyx. If nerve fibers are involved in the pathological process( squeezing or irritation), which pass below through the holes in the coccygeal bone, then chronic cocciogeny develops. Simultaneously, the patient has such symptoms as numbness of the perineal skin, disruption of the rectum, bladder, erectile dysfunction in men.
Such a pillow for sitting should be worn by anyone who suffers from a chronic coccidonia
Because of the close anatomical proximity of the rectum and anal opening, coccidogony can be accompanied, which in this case is false. Pain in the coccyx appear in patients with hemorrhoids, acute and chronic anal fissure, paraproctitis, tumors of the intestine.
With the causes that cause coccyalgia during childbirth and pregnancy, we figured out above. But such symptoms can occur in women who have never given birth. They are associated with some gynecological ailments, namely: with endometriosis, inflammatory lesions of the uterus and its appendages, tumor diseases of female genital organs.
Tumors of the pelvis of the pelvis
Among tumors of this localization can be both malignant and benign. Most often you have to deal with osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, teratoma. The last tumor, as a rule, is benign and occurs mainly in children. It consists of germ cells and is congenital. Therefore, teratomas are often diagnosed before childbirth in the child with the help of ultrasound screening. Treatment is only prompt.
It should be noted that the establishment of the true cause of cocciogeny is a very difficult task, since approximately 1/3 of all cases of this pain syndrome are idiopathic, that is, those whose etiology remains unknown.
So, to which doctor to handle with pain in the coccyx? Several specialists are dealing with this problem. To begin with, you need to visit a therapist or family doctor who, based on complaints and patient examination data, will prescribe additional consultations of the proctologist, gynecologist for women, traumatologist-orthopedist.
CT makes it easy to diagnose any damage to the tailbone, for example, a bone dislocation of the
Diagnostic program includes the following activities:
- Collection of complaints and study of the medical history, identification of risk factors for the development of cocciogeny in a patient( falls, strokes, excess weight, pathological birth, etc.).
- Visual inspection and palpation. It allows to reveal the change of the skin above the coccyx, to determine the external hemorrhoids, the crack of the anal opening, to determine the possible deformation in this area, to assess the mobility of the coccyx, to reveal soreness, crepitus, cyst.
- Radiography. An obligatory method of research in cocciogeny. It gives an opportunity to assess the position, shape, integrity of the coccygeal bone, to establish its dislocations and fractures.
- Proctological and gynecological examinations.
- Additional methods of investigation( MRI, ultrasound, CT, sigmoidoscopy, laboratory research methods).
If, according to all the surveys, the causes of pain in the coccyx region are not verified, then a diagnosis of idiopathic cocciogeny is established. The outlook is unfavorable, since it is difficult to get rid of the consequences without knowing their true causes.
Treatment of pain in the coccyx
Always treatment of cocciogeny begins with the elimination of its cause, if known. In case the etiology remains unrecognized, the therapy is non-specific and includes:
- Medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, muscle relaxants, glucocorticoids and local anesthetics for blockades, B vitamins, drugs for improving microcirculation.
- Physiotherapy procedures - darsonvalization, ultrasound therapy, phonophoresis, diadynamic therapy, UHF, paraffin wraps.
- Massage and reflexotherapy courses( acupuncture), manual and kinesiotherapy.
- Use of special pads to reduce pressure on the tailbone when seated.
- Surgical treatment with inefficiency of all described techniques( operative removal of coccyx).
- Regular therapeutic physical exercises after the elimination of acute pain.
Thus, pain in the coccyx may have several causes, among which are not harmful to health, and those that pose a direct threat to human life. Therefore, if you identify signs of cocciogeny you do not need to hesitate to contact a specialist, as in such a situation every minute is expensive.