Myalgia is a muscle pain( Latin my - muscle and algus - pain).Myalgia can occur in any muscle groups. But most often the muscles of the back ache. It is not surprising that the back, especially its lumbar region, carries the maximum physical load. This vast anatomical area, stretching from the back of the neck to the sacrum, accommodates a large array of muscles. And, of course, various diseases and pathological processes in the muscles of the back will almost always be manifested by myalgia.
The reasons why myalgia develops in the back are more than enough. Most often, the pain in the muscles of the back is due to the pathology of the spine. As a rule, this is an osteochondrosis. It should be noted that the degeneration of the intervertebral disc itself is painless. But complications of osteochondrosis( herniated discs, radiculitis, spondylosis) along with pain, sensory and motor disorders are accompanied by pathological muscle tension. Muscle tension, in turn, leads to myalgia. This so-called.muscular-fascial pain.
Similar in nature to the pain in the muscles of the back are a constant symptom for various curvatures of the spine( pathological kyphosis, scoliosis).It should be noted that lateral curvature of the spine may be structural and non-structural. Structural scoliosis is a primary change in the spinal column. Non-structural scoliosis is secondary, and can be caused by the pathology of the pelvic bones, lower limbs. With all these conditions, soreness in the back muscles is due to constant tension or abnormal stretching of the back muscles. Pathological muscle tension can develop and with other defects of the skeleton - a narrow shoulder girdle, flat feet.
Myalgia in the back is not necessarily associated with the pathology of the spine. Often, pain in the back muscles is caused by a cough with colds, bronchitis, pneumonia. Myalgia in this case is due to increased work of the back muscles during coughing movements. Reflex muscle spasm with the appearance of appropriate pain is possible with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( peptic ulcer, intestinal pathology), or with gynecological diseases.
Very often, muscle pain in the back develops as a result of myositis. Myositis combines a variety of causes and symptoms, accompanied by an inflammatory process in the muscle tissue in infections, adverse external effects, various metabolic disorders. Finally, myalgia in the back can be caused by trauma( stroke, bruise), a tumor.
Why do the back muscles hurt? In different states, the mechanism of pain is triggered in different ways. With injuries and tumors, there is a mechanical irritation of the local receptors. In the case of muscular-fascial pain, this mechanism is somewhat more complicated. With these conditions, blood circulation at the capillary level is disturbed. For this reason, muscle tissue does not receive the required amount of oxygen. In it, processes of utilization of glucose are violated, lactic acid accumulates. Excess lactic acid leads to a characteristic painful sensation.
A whole cascade of inflammatory reactions is triggered in myositis. In many organs and tissues are located the so-called.mast cells. In myositis, degranulation( destruction) of these cells occurs, and the release of biologically active substances, or mediators of inflammation, from them. These mediators of inflammation lead to the corresponding symptoms - pain, swelling, fever. In addition, myalgia in the back can be the result of exposure to microbial toxins, various poisons entering the body from the outside.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Gymnastics for the back muscles
Because of its nature, myalgia in the back can be sharp, acute, or vice versa, dull, aching. And only one nature of pain can not be diagnosed. Moreover, with the same disease, a different character of pain is possible. Myalgia is accompanied by a decrease in the sensitivity and volume of movements in the back, can be combined with fever and disruption of the internal organs.
Muscle pain occurs spontaneously, or after provoking factors, which include:
- Physical activity, lifting and carrying of weights
- Psychoemotional stresses
- Exacerbation of concomitant chronic diseases
- Errors in nutrition, alcohol consumption.
Complex diagnosis of muscle pain along with complaints and the above symptoms includes laboratory tests, internal organs investigations. One of the most effective methods for diagnosing muscle pain is EMG( electromyography) - recording of muscle electrical activity.
Treatment of muscle pain in the back, as well as many other pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system, includes:
- Curative gymnastics.
Drug therapy for muscle pain in the back is aimed at anesthesia, the elimination of muscle spasm and inflammatory processes. To this end, use painkillers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs), and so on.muscle relaxants - drugs that relax the skeletal muscles. The latter group includes Mydocalm, Baclofen and Tizanidine. All these drugs are available in the form of tablets, and taken internally. The effectiveness of analgesic tablets with pain in the back is minimal. Preferred preparations for external use - Fastum gel, Diklak gel, Finalgon, Apizarthron. These agents in various combinations contain NSAIDs, local anesthetic and skin irritating agents.
In any case, medications alone for back pain can not be avoided. Medical therapy should be supported by physiotherapy, massage, manual therapy, and therapeutic gymnastics. Massage movements are carried out in the following sequence: stroking, rubbing, kneading, and again stroking. For each of the stages, no more than 3 minutes are allowed. In this case, do not forget that the massage is carried out only after relieving the exacerbation. The same applies to physiotherapeutic procedures - electrophoresis, phonophoresis, electrical stimulation of muscles, paraffin treatment.
Therapeutic physical training is aimed at protecting against muscle strain and eliminating painful muscular spasm. During the period of exacerbation, a special immobilizing corset is shown. Exercises begin with minimal loads, then their volume expands. In the basis of therapeutic gymnastics in this case is the so-called.postisometric relaxation of muscles. The essence of this method lies in creating a uniform load on the muscle, and then in its relaxation. In a normal healthy muscle, all muscle fibers tense and relax synchronously. In a pathologically tense muscle, there is no single relaxation - all fibers are strained alternately. In the process of post-isometric relaxation, physical loads are created, during which the work of the muscles is synchronized - relaxation follows the load.
Approximately the same effect in manual therapy, when the hands of the manual therapist are squeezed, stretched, and sometimes pierced painfully tight muscles. In parallel with the above-described medical measures, specific therapy of diseases of the internal organs that could cause these pains is carried out. With chronic muscle pain in the back, recovery is shown in mud resorts.
You can also read an article about the most common causes of low back pain.