A dislocation of the finger occurs when the finger or phalanx is drastically re-braided. In this case, the far segment is displaced to the rear. In the direction of the palm, the displacement occurs with excessive load on the bent finger. The main cause of injury is the effect on the joint of a force exceeding the capacity of muscles and ligaments.
The dislocation of the middle finger usually occurs after a sharp blow to the fingers. This may injure the index finger. The dislocation of the little finger is also often a common trauma, since the ligaments and muscles here are rather weak. The cause of the injury may be an unsuccessful fall or an awkward hand movement.
Symptoms of finger dislocation
The dislocation of the thumb is the most frequent damage and occurs mainly in men. Distinguish:
1. Complete dislocation , in which the main phalanx is displaced to the rear, and the head of the metacarpal bone in the direction of the palm, tearing apart the capsule of the joint and ligaments that hold the bones and muscles.
When the tendon slides from the anatomical position, it is possible that it is infringed between the bone and the phalanx, which makes it difficult to straighten. Between the base phalanx and metacarpal bone a right angle is formed. Such a dislocation is called the rear.
Injury is accompanied by sharp pain and limited mobility of the thumb, which is outgrown in the metacarpophalangeal articulation. The end phalanx of the finger is bent. The outer edge of the brush bulges out.
When palpation is well palpated the head of the metacarpal bone. Active movements are impossible. Attempt of passive movements in the deformed joint provokes and intensifies the pain. The symptom of the spring resistance is determined. For palmar displacement, bayonet deformation is characteristic.
2. Thrust of the thumb .The deformity is less expressed. Possible passive extension of the nail phalanx.
Common signs of dislocation:
Rheumatoid arthritis of the fingers
- Deformation of the joint of the finger
- Sharp pain
- The joint swells
- Traumatized finger turns pale, numbness occurs
- The skin at the deformation site turns red.
Even before you contact a traumatologist and complete treatment, you can provide yourself first aid.
- With a damaged brush, you need to remove all the shy items.
- To reduce swelling apply cold and keep your arm in a raised position.
- To prevent further deformation, the injured finger should be fixed with a bandage.
- Get injured.
In some cases, the injury is accompanied by damage to the skin, which requires immediate assistance.
Self-directed dislocation is strictly prohibited! This can lead to complications.
In a hospital setting, the dislocation treatment will depend on the severity of the injury. If rupture of ligaments and bone damage, surgery may be necessary. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical symptoms and is confirmed by X-ray examination.
When correcting a full dislocation, anesthesia with good muscle relaxation is necessary. Fix the brush in the semiprone position. In cases of rear dislocation, fix the forearm in the area of the wrist joint, resting on the base of the dislocated phalanx, grasp the thumb of the patient and, against a background of smooth but strong traction, slowly and gradually increase the over-extension of the finger. Thus, the possible infringement of sesamoid bones is eliminated.
The traumatologist strives to move the finger distally in relation to the metacarpal bone, producing counter pressure on her head, quickly unbends the terminal phalanx and flexes the finger.
This position is fixed with a plaster bandage from the middle of the terminal phalanx to the upper third of the forearm for 3-4 weeks. Sometimes the correction fails. In these cases, resort to surgery. Further treatment is carried out as usual.
The dislocation of the phalanx of the finger in interphalangeal joints occurs in the back, palmar and lateral sides. Diagnosis of the dislocation is based on the characteristic deformation, restriction of functions, springing immobility and X-ray examination data.
Directions are achieved by pulling the phalanx.
Fixation for 3 weeks is performed with a plaster lingette or a circularly applied adhesive plaster.
After the dislocation, the patient undergoes a course of rehabilitation measures. To strengthen the joint apparatus is recommended to perform a set of exercises, undergo a course of therapeutic massage of the brush and physiotherapy procedures. Assign anti-inflammatory ointments and creams, with surgical intervention - antibiotics.
The aged dislocation is corrected with the help of the Volkov-Oganesyan apparatus. Produce forced stretching of the affected area and directing the joint to the anatomical position with subsequent stabilization and development of the function of the joint. Complete rehabilitation takes place in the second month, with all the prescribed appointments.