No one is insured from injuries. Of course, professional sportsmen and fans of outdoor activities are more exposed to them than office workers, but it is not always possible to protect oneself from accidents. Injuries of the lower extremities are especially unpleasant, becausecan permanently disrupt the habitual life, depriving the person of the opportunity to move freely. A strong dislocation among such injuries is the dislocation of the foot.
Classification of pathology
The basis for the classification of dislocation of the foot is its localization. Depending on where exactly the trauma is located, dislocations are distinguished:
- tarsus - dislocation of Chopar;
- plus - Lisfrank's dislocation;
- subtalar dislocation;
- of the fingers;
- of the talus;
- ankle joint.
If you consider the common signs of dislocation of the foot, they will in all cases be identical. Immediately after a traumatic effect, a sharp painful attack occurs, extensive swelling is formed, the skin of the foot changes color - pale or become covered with a bruised bruise. The patient can not stand up, the motor function of the joint is broken or completely absent.
We will consider in more detail the symptoms of dislocation of the foot of various localizations.
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- The dislocation of the toes is characterized by acute pain and edema of the distal part. The reasons for such damage - a direct blow to the fingers, for example, when playing football or falling on the leg of a heavy object.
- Dislocation of Chopard occurs after an awkward turn of the foot. The deformation of the foot is clearly visible, the patient experiences severe pain, the leg swells. Complications of Chopar's dislocation are violations of the blood supply to the fingers, which can lead to the development of gangrene.
- Subtarial dislocation is a rare phenomenon. Painful sensations and a significant swelling of the foot do not allow the patient to rest on his leg, but the motor activity of the ankle is kept in a small amount.
- The dislocation of Lisfranc occurs even less frequently than subtalar. Distinctive symptoms of dislocation of the metatarsal are a noticeable extension of the foot. With a visual inspection, it looks incredibly short. The leg is swollen, it hurts badly.
- The most severe dislocation can be considered damage to the ankle joint. It can be front or back, external or internal. Often dislocations of an ankle joint are accompanied by ruptures of ligaments and fractures of the ankles. General signs characteristic of all kinds of dislocations are also present.
If you witness an
injury Anyone should have information about how first aid is carried out with a dislocation of the foot. Do not try to release the damaged joint from shoes or clothes - you can aggravate the situation. The most important thing is to keep the foot still. This can be achieved by imposing a tight bandage or an improvised tire, in the role of which any solid object - a board, a branch, etc. can act. If you have an anesthetic tablet at your fingertips, it is necessary to give them to the injured person.
It is strictly forbidden to warm the area of damage, in the first day with the dislocation of the foot of any localization only the cold is used. Local application of a bubble with ice helps to reduce edema and relieve pain. Simultaneously cold can be applied for no more than a quarter of an hour.
Having first aid to the patient, it is necessary to quickly deliver it to the traumatologist.
In order to properly assign treatment, in any trauma, an X-ray is performed. Based on the results of the picture, the degree and type of damage is established, which determines the further treatment measures.
Bandage with dislocation of foot
Any dislocation of the foot requires repositioning and subsequent application of gypsum. If this is an ankle injury, plaster is applied to the hip, after 20 days, the knee is released from the plaster. In total, the patient with an ankle dislocation will spend at least 8 weeks in the cast. The same amount will have to wear gypsum and the patient with a dislocation of tarsi and tarsus. After liberation of the knee from gypsum, exercise therapy is gradually prescribed for joint development, physiotherapy treatment. Within a year after such dislocations, the patient is recommended to wear orthopedic shoes.
With subtalar dislocations, the terms of wearing gypsum are slightly smaller - up to 6 weeks. Dislocations of the toes of the foot are corrected, and then a gypsum longite is applied for up to 2 weeks. Sometimes, to prevent a repeated fracture, the joints of the toes are fixed with spokes, which are removed after 10 days.
If dislocation of the dislocation is impossible, the patient undergoes a surgical procedure.
Rehabilitation measures are of great importance after any injury. Well, if they are held in a special rehabilitation center, where the complex use of physiotherapeutic treatment with exercise therapy is possible, as well as dynamic medical supervision.
If the patient is at home, he should remember that the damaged limb should be kept all the time, as if in a "suspended" state. When lying on the back, under the injured leg should be put the roller, so that the angle of rise of the leg is about 30 degrees. Walking with support on the damaged limb should begin gradually, only after it is resolved by the doctor.
Due to the limitation of mobility, the diet and diet should not be too high-calorie. You should eat easily digestible food, preferring boiled and vegetable dishes. After the plaster cast is removed, it is recommended to wear special shoes, use orthopedic insoles and insteps.