Any malignant neoplasm in the last stage is prone to metastasis, that is, to the formation of new tumor elements in perfectly healthy organs of the human body. Such tumors, in fact, are secondary oncological diseases. Metastases in the spine most often occur with the following localizations of the primary tumor:
- Breast cancer;
- Lung cancer;
- Prostate cancer.
May provoke metastasis in the spine and other oncological causes: tumors of the thyroid gland, gastrointestinal tract, kidney disease.
Varieties of metastases
There are two types of metastases in the spine:
- Sclerotic .So called metastases, which are easily detected on the X-ray and are not accompanied by compression symptoms. The vertebrae are sclerosed diffusely, in some cases the vertebral body is enlarged. Sclerotization of the vertebrae can affect not only the bone tissue of the vertebral body, vertebral processes and arches may be involved in the process. Intervertebral discs with sclerotic metastasis in the pathological process are not included.
- Osteoclastic .This type is more difficult to diagnose. Characterized by the presence of compression syndrome, associated with the germination of the tumor not only in adjacent vertebrae, but also in soft tissues.
Signs of the disease
Symptoms of lumbar spine cancer
The main symptom of metastases in the spine is the pain of different localization. Unlike pain caused by other vertebral pathologies, pain with metastases is constant, exhausting, not passing after a night's sleep. As the tumor grows, the pain grows, and then the symptoms of spinal cord compression are added:
- Numbness and tremor of the limbs;
- Involuntary urination and defecation;
- Noise in the ears.
Given that the cancer for a long time may not show any symptoms, back pain occurs much later than the signs of the primary tumor.
Modern diagnostic methods
Detection of spine pathology is carried out not only with the help of traditional X-ray examination, but also more effective methods - magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, spinal scintigraphy.
Forecasts and treatment
Prognosis of treatment can be different - it is important to localize vertebral metastases, the extent of the prevalence of the primary process, the general state of the body.
Treatment for metastases in the spine - cyberknife
Treatment of metastases in the spine is aimed at improving the quality of life of an oncological patient, eliminating pain, slowing or removing the tumor. It is carried out with the help of:
- Radio or radiotherapy. Irradiation of sites of metastasis leads to mutation in its cellular structure, which leads to the death or reduction of the tumor;
- Chemotherapy. Treatment is carried out with the help of one or several chemotherapy drugs and is aimed at the destruction of tumor cells;
- Hormonotherapy. Hormone therapy is appropriate only for hormone-dependent tumors;
- of the Operative Intervention. It can be both traditional surgical operations, and non-invasive interventions( with the help of a fairly new invention - a cyberknife).Treatment with a cyberknife is preferable for a number of factors:
- Does not require general anesthesia;
- Held quickly;
- is an accurate and effective technique that significantly improves the patient survival prognosis.
The diagnosis of "cancer" has long been not a verdict. Modern methods of early diagnosis can stop the development of tumors at the earliest stages. Therefore, do not neglect the annual medical examinations, at the first signs of back pain, seek medical help.