Bleeding is a condition in which blood loss occurs as a result of damage to blood vessels of different levels. Most often in everyday life there is a capillary bleeding, which can be, including nasal. With deep wounds, arterial and venous bleeding can develop. The first species is the greatest danger to human life, as the blood flows with pulsatile fountains. Massive blood loss can occur after 15 - 20 minutes. Vascular collapse begins, which can be accompanied by necrosis of the brain tissue and cardiac arrest. With venous bleeding, a clinical picture of massive shock blood loss can develop for several hours.
First aid for bleeding should be given according to certain rules. They are detailed in this material.
First aid for bleeding
First aid for bleeding starts with the location of the wound. Inspection of the wound surface is performed, the depth of the wound, the evenness of the edges, the presence of foreign objects in it are estimated. It is worth remembering that extracting in the framework of pre-medical first aid with bleeding foreign objects is strictly prohibited. This can entail increased blood flow from damaged blood vessels. If possible, the wound is treated first. To do this, you can use hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of 3% or pure running water. Then it is tamponed with sterile gauze napkins. After this, a tourniquet or a pressure bandage is applied. Called the ambulance. In case of dizziness and massive blood loss, the patient should be placed on a horizontal surface and raised legs.
These are the general basic principles of first aid for bleeding. Next, consider some types of bleeding, and the distinctive conditions of providing pre-hospital care for them.
First aid for new and capillary hemorrhage
Primary care for nasal bleeding is most often performed in domestic and field conditions. The cause may be hypertensive crisis, weakening of the vascular wall for colds and flu, bone injuries and the cartilaginous part of the nose, and many other factors of negative influence.
First aid for nasal bleeding is found by the following algorithm:
- of the injured person should be seated on a chair and tilt his head back;
- applies a cold on the back of the nose( it can be an ice pack, a cloth moistened with cold water);
- with a disposable syringe without a needle can wash the nasal passages of 3% hydrogen peroxide and blot the mucosa with a soft non-woven cloth;The
- then looks at the nasal passages for foreign objects( especially in the case of small children, whose nosebleeds most often develop against the background of traumatic lesions of the mucous membrane with small parts of toys and other objects that enter the nasal passages);
- if the bleeding does not stop, then turundas are curled from sterile gauze napkins and inserted into the nasal passages as far as possible.
After all these measures, it is necessary to consult a doctor for an otolaryngologist to exclude traumatic damage to the latticed bone.
And now consider briefly how first aid is provided with capillary bleeding. Usually they develop as a result of abrasions, superficial cuts of skin. Bleeding is of low intensity, drip. It has a strong pain syndrome. First aid measures include antiseptic measures, the imposition of a sterile protective dressing and the application of cold. With an antiseptic purpose, the wound is washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, lubrication with an alcoholic solution of brilliant green or 5% iodine. Then a sterile cloth and a gauze dressing are applied. On top, you can put a bubble with ice for 20 - 30 minutes.
First aid for wounds: arterial and venous bleeding
First aid for those who suffer from bleeding is provided by applying a harness and urgently sending it to the nearest medical facility. In all cases, this is an occasion for an emergency call of an ambulance team.
First aid for arterial hemorrhage in the domestic environment can be provided only by squeezing a damaged vessel above the site of the injury. It should be known that blood along the arteries always moves from the heart to the peripheral parts of the body. Those.with arterial bleeding in the region of the forearm for first aid, the tourniquet is superimposed on the area closer to the shoulder joint. Similarly, this operation is seen on the lower limbs. If it is not possible to apply a tourniquet, pressure bandages should be used. In some cases, the wound before the arrival of an ambulance is clamped by the hand. It is advisable to use sterile dressings for this purpose.
In the conditions of a surgical hospital, the first aid for venous and arterial bleeding is by suturing the wall of the blood vessel at the site of injury. In domestic conditions, first aid for venous bleeding is the same as with arterial blood loss. However, the tourniquet is placed below the injury site, since the venous blood flows in the opposite direction from the proximal parts of the body to the heart.
Please note! Cold application in venous and arterial bleeding does not make any sense, as these vessels are not subject to constriction due to low temperatures.