Insufficiency of the pancreas. Types, causes, treatment

The pancreas is a very important organ in humans. It performs many functions that ensure the normal functioning of the body. Like any other organ, the pancreas can fail. One of the most common diseases is pancreatic insufficiency.


  • 1 Pancreatic insufficiency. Reasons
  • 2 Types failure
  • 3 pancreatic exocrine insufficiency
    • 3.1 Symptoms
    • 3.2 reasons
  • 4 exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
    • 4.1 Symptoms
    • 4.2 reasons
    • 4.3 Diagnosis and treatment
  • 5 Enzyme pancreatic insufficiency
    • 5.1 reasons
    • 5.2 Diagnosis andtreatment
  • 6 Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency
    • 6.1 Reasons for
    • 6.2 Symptoms
    • 6.3 DiagnosisOstik and treatment
    • 6.4 Forecasts

Pancreatic insufficiency. Causes of


There are several types of pancreatic insufficiency

As with all other diseases, it also has reasons for which this deficiency develops. In the pancreas, special enzymes are produced, without which the process of digestion is simply impossible. If there is a failure in the development of these enzymes and substances, then such a malfunction is called pancreatic insufficiency. Among the reasons that can cause this malfunction can be identified:

  • Pancreatic tissue destruction
  • Vitamin deficiency in the body
  • Reduction of blood protein level
  • Reduced hemoglobin
  • Incorrect nutrition, in particular consumption of fatty and salty foods, use of unusual spices, etc.

Of course, this is not all the reasons that can lead to pancreatic insufficiency. There are a lot of factors. Sometimes a significant role can play a heredity( predisposition).It seems that a person leads a normal lifestyle, eats properly, etc., but still suffers from this ailment.

Types of pancreatic insufficiency

Today, there are four types of functional pancreatic insufficiency. Each of these species has its own characteristics, from the causes of appearance, ending with symptoms and treatment. Thus, the following are isolated:

  1. External secretory deficiency
  2. Exocrine insufficiency
  3. Enzyme deficiency
  4. Endocrine deficiency

As mentioned above, each of them has its own peculiarities. Therefore, in order to fully understand what the differences are and whether there is a similarity in the manifestation of symptoms, it is necessary to get acquainted with each closer. Insufficiency of the pancreas is not a very pleasant circumstance. But in order to establish what kind of insufficiency takes place, it is necessary to consult a doctor who, based on the symptoms, will put an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the necessary treatment.

External Aspergillosis

Unfortunately, today more and more people suffer from pancreatic insufficiency. And if earlier the age category began about 50 years ago, today the bar has moved much lower, and people of younger age suffer from it. Outer secretory insufficiency is a deficiency of enzymes( secret), due to which the cleavage of all nutrients in the body occurs. This happens because over time, under the strong influence of certain factors in the pancreas, the number of cells that produce this very important secretion decreases.

Symptoms of

As with any other disease, exocrine insufficiency has a number of specific manifestations, according to which it can be determined that this is exactly this type. Among the main symptoms are:

  • Intolerance to fatty, as well as spicy food. People with such deficiency are very difficult to eat fatty foods, because it is either hard to digest, or not at all perceived by the body.
  • Heaviness in the abdomen. It is formed mainly after the person used fatty foods, which, as already mentioned above, is not absorbed by the body
  • Fatty stool. And it is porridge-like
  • Bloating
  • Colic
  • Pain in bone
To confirm the diagnosis, a number of studies

To confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a number of studies of

. In addition, the symptoms of manifestation of exocrine insufficiency can also include heart palpitations, convulsions, dyspnea, abnormalities in coagulability, dry skin and t. These symptoms appear as a consequence of a lack of body fat, which are also very important. Because of their poor digestibility, there are accompanying problems that bring greater discomfort than direct symptoms of the manifestation of the disease.

Read: Stones in the pancreas: is it worth being afraid?

Reasons for

There are several specific reasons why a person can develop this type of deficiency. These include:

  • Weight reduction of exocrine parenchyma
  • Outflow of secretion to the duodenum
  • Insufficient participation of enzymes in the processing of substances
  • Treatment of

In fact, the most important treatment will be compliance with the correct diet, the basic principles of which are:

  1. It is necessary to increase the number of meals,while reducing its amount
  2. Restrict the use of fatty foods, which, moreover, can include all fatty meat varieties
  3. Restrict the use of food in laterevening as well as night hours
  4. It is necessary to completely abandon the use of alcohol

Foods that are allowed to be consumed are discussed with the attending physician, who in turn must fully control the diet of the patients. If we talk about the restriction in the intake of fatty and animal food, then it is necessary to replace it with vegetable, that is, eat more vegetables and fruits. Carbohydrates come to the fore for people suffering from such an ailment, which must be used in the right amount to help the body. But it is worth remembering the main thing that you need to look for carbohydrates in useful food, and not in sweets, in which carbohydrates are contained in huge quantities.

But there is one caveat in all this, in all this diet. Many patients who completely switch to vegetable food begin to experience problems associated with increased gas production. If this happens, patients are advised to eat bran.

In addition to diet, patients are prescribed drugs that will directly help the pancreas. These drugs include Creon, Pancreatin, Mezim, etc. Usually, the intake of these medicines is prescribed with each meal in order to rule out possible digestive problems.

The main indicator of the correctness of the prescribed treatment is the disappearance of diarrhea, as well as normal values ​​in the analysis of the patient's stool. External pancreatic insufficiency is a serious problem, but you can live with it. You just need to monitor your diet and follow the doctor's instructions.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Preparations for improving pancreatic function

Drugs for improving pancreatic function

This is another type of pancreatic insufficiency, which means a lack of juices for normal and stable digestion. Like all diseases, it has its own peculiarities of manifestation.

Symptoms of

There are several specific symptoms on the basis of which it can be concluded that this type of deficiency exists in humans:

  • Poor digestibility of food
  • Flatulence
  • Chair disorder
  • Nausea
  • Feeling of severity

Of course, this is not all a symptom of this disease. As with the rest of the deficiencies, this one has other accompanying symptoms, which are very similar to that of the exocrine.

Causes of

Exocrine failure will never develop simply. It is preceded by some violations in the body, which give impetus to its development. Thus, among the causes of exocrine insufficiency are:

  1. Pancreatic disorders associated with irreversible changes in its tissues
  2. Problems with the stomach
  3. Problems with the duodenum
  4. Problems with the gallbladder
  5. Incorrect nutrition, which includes diets based on consumptionof the same product for a long period of time
  6. Alcohol abuse
  7. Fasting
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Diagnosis and treatment

To determine this type of deficiency can only be determined by laboratory tests. The list of analyzes is appointed by the attending physician, who will subsequently monitor the entire treatment process. In addition, if a person has been diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, he will always be required to check for sugar in the blood, because in this case the risk of developing diabetes is high.

One of the main principles of successful treatment is the determination of the true cause of this insufficiency. If the cause is alcohol abuse or diet, you need to change your mind about these things and exclude alcohol, and start eating right. The key to proper nutrition in the presence of such a disease is the presence of vitamins such as A, C and E, which have a positive effect on the pancreas. In addition to the diet, the patient is prescribed drugs that help in the development of the necessary enzymes.

Very often a person does not even understand that he has such a problem, since the symptoms of this deficiency are not so obvious and the doctor can only make an accurate diagnosis after receiving the results of laboratory studies of stool.

Pancreatic enzyme insufficiency

Pain - as one of the symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency

Pains - as one of the symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency

The pancreas performs a number of specific functions, and any of its symptoms can trigger the development of insufficiency. One of the most common deficiencies of the pancreas is the enzyme. Enzymes are contained in gastric juice and help digest food. If it happens that at least one enzyme will be present in insufficient quantity, the process of digestion will be broken.

Causes of

Among the reasons for the development of enzyme deficiency can be identified:

  1. Damage to pancreatic cells under the influence of certain medications
  2. Infections
  3. Pancreatic duct damage
  4. Pathologies in the structure of the body( congenital)
  5. Dysbacteriosis
  6. Symptoms of

Among the symptoms that are characteristic for enzyme deficiency,the following can be distinguished:

  • Stool disorder, in particular, loose stool
  • General weakness
  • Disturbance of appetite
  • Increased gas production
  • Weight loss and physical activity of a person
  • Nausea
  • Severe abdominal pain

One of the most important symptoms of the manifestation of enzyme deficiency is a stool change. This disease is characterized by a fatty stool with a very unpleasant and fetid odor.

Diagnosis and treatment of

In order to accurately diagnose, the patient must pass some tests. They include:

  • Blood analysis( general and biochemical)
  • Blood sugar analysis
  • Urinalysis
  • Stool analysis
  • Ultrasound examination
  • Tomography

After all these tests are completed and procedures are completed, the doctor will make an accurate diagnosis based on the results. If the patient has been diagnosed with an enzyme deficiency, then he will have to undergo treatment, which will consist of:

  1. Assignment of a high-calorie diet
  2. Appointments of drugs that will help the food to be digested

The diet and preparations are tailored to each patient individually, taking into account its physiological characteristics, as well as tolerabilityor intolerance to certain components in prescribed medications.

Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Only a doctor can determine the type of pancreatic insufficiency

Only a doctor can determine the type of pancreatic insufficiency

Read: Pancreatic pain. What are they talking about?

Endocrine insufficiency is also called intrasecretory. This function of the pancreas includes the production of hormones such as insulin, lipocaine, glucagon. Violation of this function can lead to irreparable consequences for the human body as a whole.

Reasons for

The main cause of this deficiency is the damage to those places of the pancreas that are responsible for the production of hormones. These places are also called islets of Langerhans. If these places are damaged, then there is a high probability of developing diabetes.

Symptoms of

Among the symptoms of endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can be identified:

  1. Vomiting
  2. Unpleasant odor of gases
  3. Diarrhea. And the smell will be very fetid
  4. Increase in the number of bowel movements per day
  5. Meteorism
  6. Deviations in blood tests

Of course, this is not all symptoms. Among the attendant, you can identify the general malaise of a person due to fluid loss( it is lost with frequent defecation, when a person has diarrhea).

Diagnosis and treatment

Very often the diagnosis can be made after the entire history, that is, after talking with the patient. This happens because other inadequacies, compared to this, are not so pronounced. But still, for an accurate diagnosis, a person will need to be done:

  • Blood test( general and biochemical)
  • Blood sugar analysis
  • Urine analysis
  • Fecal analysis
  • Ultrasound examination
  • Tomography

After the attending physician receives all the results of the conducted studies onhands, he will be able to deliver an accurate diagnosis, based on which treatment will be prescribed. Treatment usually includes adherence to a strict diet, the main purpose of which is to control the level of sugar in the blood. If the diet does not help, the person will be prescribed insulin therapy. If you follow all the recommendations of a doctor, you can completely return to a normal lifestyle. The main thing to remember is that a diet is necessary, and there should not be any deviations from it.

Forecasts of

Today, almost every third person suffers from any type of pancreatic insufficiency. Of course, everyone has different degrees. Someone accidentally discovered this early enough and managed to prevent a worse aggravation of the situation, someone did not know about this until the very last moment, until all the symptoms showed up so much that it made him turn to a specialist. In any case, every patient can hope that his life will be easier if he follows all the recommendations of doctors.

If a person sits on the proposed diet and drinks all the necessary farmetozamenyayuschie drugs, then in 80 percent of cases he manages to avoid further development of the disease and the transition to a more difficult stage.

Pancreatic insufficiency is a difficult test for every person. In most cases, when a person completely refuses alcohol, from fatty and spicy food, follows all the recommendations, his survival rate becomes much higher than if he continued to lead the old way of life. So, for example, if a person, due to excessive consumption of alcohol, earned himself a pancreatic insufficiency, then with complete abandonment of this harmful habit( refusal of alcohol in general), he can live it for about 10 years. In any case, a person's life is always in his hands. In his power how to pour it, and destroy it. The main thing to remember is that doctors are helpers, not enemies.

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