Many wonder how to enter the season of tick spread? Refuse to travel to nature? Of course not! It is important to know what a threat to a person is the encephalitis tick. This will help to carry out effective preventive maintenance every year.
Compliance with safety rules will help every person protect their body from a tick bite. It is important to know how to act in a situation when this arachnid has already committed a bite. First aid will protect against infection or minimize its consequences.
To have an idea of how ticks look, you need to familiarize yourself with the various photos. It is important to understand that not all representatives of this kind of arachnids carry encephalitis. But at the same time, it is impossible to determine without performing laboratory tests, whether the tick is infectious.
- 1 What is an encephalitis tick?
- 2 Encephalitis
- 3 Vaccination from encephalitis
- 4 Nonspecific prevention
What is encephalitis mite?
The tick is a spider-like animal whose habitat is bushes, trees, tall grass. Basically, they creep on a person from a height of 50 - 100 centimeters. All varieties of ticks have a proboscis, which they make a bite on the skin and stick to it. This organ is clearly visible in the photo.
Many of the mites carry a very dangerous for life and health encephalitis virus. It causes inflammation of the human brain. This pathogenic microflora can also provoke the inflammation of the spinal cord, which is called meningitis. There is also meningoencephalitis.
A bite of encephalitis mite can also transmit Lyme disease.
According to statistics, thousands of people every year in Russia only get encephalitis.
The number of vaccinated people varies from 5% to 10% annually. Undoubtedly, this is a low indicator, despite the fact that vaccination is the only reliable method of protection. It should be done by everyone who lives in epidemiologically dangerous regions, or is going to come there on a visit.
A large number of ticks are found in the Far East, the Urals and Siberia. In other Russian cities, the risk of being bitten by this species of arthropods also remains high. Periodically recorded the appearance of encephalitis ticks in Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Moldova, Germany and other countries of the European continent.
As already mentioned, the encephalitic mite crawls on a person, inflicting a bite. In cities, there is an extremely low chance of catching a tick, because it chooses habitats in the wild. For the reproduction of ticks requires a small amount of ultraviolet light, high humidity, low temperature, a lot of vegetation around.
All safety precautions must be taken before going to the forest. The exception is vaccination, which must be done in advance.
The photo shows many varieties of ticks. They can have black, brown, brown color. Regardless of the color, all mites can be dangerous to humans.
To determine if a representative is a carrier of the encephalitis virus, can not be taken by photo or visual inspection. All research can be carried out only in the laboratory. For such purposes, polymerase chain reaction and high sensitivity methods are used.
Unfortunately, to date, a common misunderstanding, according to which the color of the animal can determine whether it poses a threat to human health.
Encephalitis affects the nervous system. This disease can not have complications, but can deprive a person of memory, the ability to move. There may be problems with logical thinking, speech, and other processes associated with the work of the brain. It is not uncommon for cases when a person's paralysis occurs. Severe complications develop in about 20% of cases.
Encephalitis can develop in both an adult and a child. Sometimes infection can occur not through a bite, but through the use of fresh milk. In epidemiologically dangerous regions it should be heat treated. The virus is killed by a three-minute boil.
The incubation period, that is, the time from ingestion of the pathogenic microflora before the first symptoms appear, is from one to two weeks. At this time it is very important to conduct appropriate treatment.
It should be noted that vaccination prevents the development of the disease in an infected person.
The disease can have several stages. Symptoms of each of them differ.
At the very beginning of the active phase, the temperature rises, pains in the abdomen, muscles, head appear. A person may experience nausea, vomiting, while his weight will decrease sharply. Such symptoms will occur within two to four days.
Then the patient will feel a sharp improvement. Every fifth - third case of the disease passes into the second phase, at which the nervous system is damaged. Statistics and some symptoms vary by region.
The second stage involves the defeat of the nervous system, which ends with paralysis, a violation of mental processes and memory. Symptoms are as follows:
- impaired consciousness;
- inability to hold the head in its normal state( it tilts sideways or falls to the chest);
- high body temperature;
- sharp headache;
- sleep disturbance;
Certainly, the second phase of encephalitis can result in a fatal outcome.
It should be noted that there are very frequent deaths from this disease in the Far East. It has a more aggressive and impetuous nature. At the initial stage, the temperature quickly rises to 39 degrees. The remaining symptoms may be more pronounced. Already on the 3rd - 5th day, the human spinal cord and brain can develop.
Encephalitis can be diagnosed at the first stage of the disease. The sooner the treatment is started, the greater the chance of a favorable outcome. Is it worth saying that the question is about survival? To assess the severity of the impact of the virus on the body, it is enough to look at the photos and video of the patients who passed the disease.
Vaccination from encephalitis
Vaccination is the most reliable method that can be protected from encephalitis. It should be used by all people living in epidemiologically unsafe regions. Medical science has developed two methods, according to which vaccine should be given today from encephalitis.
The first is used for people who permanently reside in regions with a large number of ticks. Patients have the choice of vaccine - foreign or domestic production.
Planned vaccination against encephalitis is carried out in three stages:
- in autumn;
- then in winter, after 1 - 3 months;
- then in summer or autumn, 9 to 12 months after the first vaccination.
This method will protect the person from the disease for three to five years.
Very often people need to visit an epidemiologically dangerous region. In this case, a routine vaccination is done, not an emergency one. For her, you must enter the vaccine first and second time at intervals of 14 to 21 days.
A year later, the vaccination should be repeated. She will provide immunity from encephalitis for 12 months.
Encephalitis is far from the only disease, from which a simple vaccine can be saved. Unfortunately, today people do not yet have a culture of taking care of their health. Many refuse vaccination, including against encephalitis. We strongly recommend considering all the advantages of vaccination and the threats that encephalitis pincers carry.
Nonspecific prophylaxis of
It is easy to protect yourself from the bite of a tick that carries the encephalitis virus. Before going to the forest, you need to take care of suitable clothes and shoes. It should have a light tint. On the light tissue, the encephalitis tick will be clearly visible. Clothes should cover the open areas of the body, as shown in the photo.
Special ointments and sprays with a specific odor are well repelled by encephalitic mites. On their packaging should be indicated that they are used against ticks. Such a means is sufficient to apply to the skin. For recreation, you should choose open glades with low growing grass.
After returning, it is absolutely necessary to examine the entire body, including the scalp, for the presence of an adherent encephalitis mite. This arachnid before the bite sprinkles the poison, so the bite is not felt. Examination of the whole body for the presence of ticks is a very important and responsible procedure.
If the tick that carries encephalitis has attached to the skin, it should be removed immediately. Do not use vegetable oil or fire. It is necessary to extract it with a thread tied in the form of a loop, as shown in many photos on the Internet.
It is very important not to damage the body of the tick transporting encephalitis. This will increase the risk of developing the disease. After extraction, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Encephalitic tick is very common in Russia. It can be found in other countries. The disease that he suffers is encephalitis. It is very dangerous for life and health. Encephalitis is characterized by inflammation of the meninges. The only reliable method of protection is vaccination.