24Feb

Chronic pharyngitis: types and characteristics of treatment

If you are annoyed by uncomfortable symptoms in the form of bothersome dry cough, most often in the morning, persistent perspiration and a feeling of compression in the throat, it is possible that the cause of these unpleasant sensations is chronic pharyngitis, a disease that can lead to serious complications if left untreated.

Contents

  • 1 What is chronic pharyngitis and can they get infected?
  • 2 Types of the disease
    • 2.1 Table: Species and their description
  • 3 Causes of the disease
    • 3.1 Video: causes of pharyngitis
  • 4 Symptoms
  • 5 Diagnosis of the disease
  • 6 Treatment of chronic pharyngitis
    • 6.1 Catarrhal form
      • 6.1.1 Photo gallery: treatment tools
    • 6.2 Video: pharyngitis treatment with phytotherapy
    • 6.3 Hypertrophic pharyngitis
      • 6.3.1 Photogallery: preparations for the treatment of hypertrophic form
    • 6.4 Treatment of atrophic pharyngitisand
    • 6.5 Folk remedies
      • 6.5.1 Photo Gallery: traditional medicine
  • 7 Exacerbations
  • 8 Features of the disease in children
    • 8.1 Video: sore throat in the child - Dr. Komarovsky
  • 9 Pharyngitis in pregnancy
  • 10 Possible complications and concomitant diseases
  • 11 Prevention

What?is chronic pharyngitis and can they get infected?

Chronic pharyngitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx and the lymphoid tissue that is there. The chronic course of the disease can develop due to untreated( not treated) acute pharyngitis or due to prolonged contact of the pharyngeal mucosa with irritating factors. Is chronic pharyngitis contagious? Otolaryngologists will confidently answer this question: the chronic form of the disease does not pose a danger to the patient's surroundings, since the disease does not have an infectious nature, unlike the acute inflammation of the pharynx. During chronic pharyngitis, there are periods of remission and exacerbation.

Pharyngitis

Comparison of a healthy pharynx and inflamed with pharyngitis

Types of the disease

There are three main types of pharyngitis, due to the degree of the pharynx and the depth of the process:

  1. Catarrhal.
  2. Hypertrophic.
  3. Atrophic.
Types of pharyngitis

State of pharynx for different types of pharyngitis

Table: Species and their description

Kind of pharyngitis What is characterized by
Catarrhal Hyperemia( reddening) of the pharyngeal mucosa is moderate, there is a slight puffiness, hypertrophied lateral ridges and follicles are well seen. The mucosal discharge separates from the back wall.
Hypertrophic

( hyperplastic)

Hyperemia( blood vessel overflow) of the pharynx bright, persistent, mucous edematous. The epithelial layer thickens and thickens, the mucous and submucosa layers loosen. There is an increase in the soft palate and tongue, on the back wall there is a large amount of flowing mucus.
Atrophic Progression of sclerotic changes in all components of the pharynx - lymphoid tissue, mucous layers, glandular apparatus. The mucus takes on an extreme viscosity, forms crusts in the throat and nasopharynx, because of this the patient experiences constant discomfort in the form of a sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the pharynx. The epithelium of the mucosa is thinned, the pharyngeal walls become pale and dry, one can even make out the blood vessels. Atrophic processes affect a significant part of nerve endings, sharply reduced pharyngeal reflexes.
Lateral( intermediate form) Lymphoid adenoid tissue forms elongated hyperemic strands that are visible beyond the bow. The pharynx is visually narrowed.
Granular( intermediate form) Numerous granules are formed on the posterior wall, different in shape and size and brightly hyperemic. A lot of mucous secretion, which differs in viscosity and tight adherence to the pharyngeal walls, this mucus is a strong irritant of throat and it is very difficult to expectorate.
Subatrophic( intermediate form) Atrophic changes in the pharyngeal mucosa begin to fade and thinner.

You can say that all of the above forms smoothly flow one into the other, if not deal with treatment. That is catarrhal pharyngitis turns into hypertrophic, lymphoid lateral tissue becomes inflamed - in the lateral. Then the process is aggravated, a granular form develops with inflammation of the granules on the back wall of the pharynx. The absence of treatment for this form leads to a subatrophic stage preceding the extreme state - atrophic pharyngitis. And if the subatrophic form is still possible to treat and restore the structure of the pharyngeal mucosa productively, then atrophic pharyngitis has already irreversible consequences. This last degree of the development of the disease is dangerous because of its high risk of malignant tumors of the pharynx.

It is interesting that atrophic pharyngitis can be not only the final stage of an untreated disease, but also have a completely different nature. Essential atrophic pharyngitis is a syndrome of dystrophic gastrointestinal disease, when all organs of this system suffer.

What causes this unpleasant and progressive disease? Inflammation of the pharynx is caused by various pathogenic bacteria living in the nasopharynx, tonsils, paranasal sinuses.

The reasons can be conditionally divided into general and local. Local causes are chronic foci of infection of the upper respiratory tract: rhinitis, tonsillitis, caries, sinusitis, adenoiditis.

Video: causes of pharyngitis

To provoke the development of the disease can:

  • the constant consumption of too hot or cold food and drinks, as well as beverages with a high level of acidity;
  • smoking;
  • abuse of strong alcohol;
  • prolonged use of anti-cold preparations with caffeine content, vasoconstrictor drops in the nose.

Against the background of weakening of immunity, microbial pathogens become more active and inflammation begins.

Common causes of the disease:

  • disorders of metabolic processes in the body, endocrine diseases;
  • difficult nasal breathing;
  • constitutional predisposition to diseases of the upper respiratory tract with hemodynamic disorders( congestion);
  • gastrointestinal diseases, for example, throwing acidic stomach contents into the esophagus and pharynx due to gastroesophageal reflux disease;
  • accommodation in adverse environmental conditions;
  • factors of harmful production - dustiness, gassing, a couple of toxic substances;
  • trauma to the oropharynx, post-operative complications after removal of the tonsils;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • is an allergy.

Symptoms

Catarrhal pharyngitis manifests itself as a sore throat and sore throat, with sore sensations when swallowed. A dry obsessive cough irritates the patient. Because of the accumulation of mucus, the patient has to periodically cough and expectorate mucus, especially in the morning.

In hypertrophic form, the symptoms are more pronounced, due to the strong accumulation of mucus in the pharynx and its complex expectoration may be nausea and vomiting.

For granulosis pharyngitis, sensations of sore, itching and constant dryness in the throat, swallowing pain, foreign body sensation in the pharynx, expectoration of a small amount of purulent sputum, attacks of dry cough, especially during sleep are characteristic.

With an atrophic form of pain in the throat is almost no, it is associated with atrophy of nerve endings in the pharynx. The patient is worried about constant dryness in the mouth, dry dry cough, severe perspiration, fast voice fatigue.

Chronic pharyngitis

Main symptoms: pain, perspiration, dry cough, redness and swelling of the pharyngeal mucosa during examination

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease for an experienced specialist is not difficult. The diagnosis can be made by a therapist or an otolaryngologist. The conclusion the doctor makes on the basis of an anamnesis and an examination of the patient. With pharyngoscopy the doctor can see such signs:

  • hyperemia and swelling of the pharyngeal mucosa, the presence of mucus in the pharynx;
  • on the back wall inflamed lymphoid granules( granulosis pharyngitis);
  • increase, hyperemia of lymphoid tissue( hypertrophic pharyngitis);
  • dry, pale, thinned mucosa with hard-to-remove crusts( atrophic pharyngitis);
  • tenderness and moderate increase in submandibular and cervical lymph nodes during palpation.

In order to clarify the diagnosis and identify the pathogen, a smear from the throat is taken.

Similar to pharyngitis symptoms are in laryngitis - inflammation of the larynx. Just like pharyngitis, laryngitis can be acute or chronic. With laryngitis, the main symptom is a specific barking cough and a complete or partial loss of voice.

In some cases, with non-transient, non-treatable sore throat, differential diagnosis with certain syndromes is required, which may be due to various systemic diseases and pathologies of the nervous system. This is Sjogren's syndrome( autoimmune disease), Plummer-Vinson's syndrome, stylalgia( chronic, sometimes unilateral sore throat).Painful sensations in the pharynx can arise even because of the defeat of the peripheral nerves. In such cases, the patient needs a consultation of a neurologist.

Treatment of chronic pharyngitis

Catarrhal form of

The patient is prescribed the following drugs:

  • antibacterial;
  • is an anti-inflammatory;
  • painkillers;
  • antiseptic.

The main condition for the successful treatment of ailment is the elimination of external adverse factors, as well as the cure of chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

Antibiotics are prescribed when confirming the bacterial nature of the disease, during periods of exacerbation.

Important: from smoking should be discarded regardless of the form of chronic pharyngitis.

For uncomplicated catarrhal pharyngitis, local antimicrobial therapy is prescribed, with chlorhexidine, hexetidine in the form of irrigation or rinsing, thymol, iodine preparations.

Assign natural antiseptics - products of beekeeping( in the absence of allergies), extracts of plants in the form of rinses. Actively used for the treatment of drugs in the form of lozenges, lozenges or tablets for absorption( Sebidine, Antiangin, Decatilen, Trachisan, Strepsils, etc.).

Sulfanilamidnye drugs are prescribed in the form of irrigation - Ingalipt, Cameton, Bicarmint in the form of soluble tablets for rinsing.

Aerosol preparation Bioparox( inhalation antibiotic fyuzafyunzhin) combines antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and is widely used for the successful treatment of inflammation of the pharynx. Assign also the drug Imudon, which is a polyvalent antigenic complex, consisting of bacterial lysate and fungi. The drug stimulates the process of phagocytosis, increases the level of lysozyme in saliva and stimulates immunity. Imudon blends nicely with antibiotic therapy and shortens healing time.

In addition to chemicals in the treatment of rinsing widely used vegetable decoctions and infusions: chamomile, St. John's wort, sage, rosemary. To eliminate the symptoms of dryness and perspiration, the mucous membrane is smeared with sea buckthorn oil, Lugol's solution in glycerin, softens soft warm milk with honey, and low-alkaline mineral water. Apply oil drops in the nose( Pinosol) or a warm soda solution with glycerin.

Oily or alkaline inhalations are an excellent aid in treatment. Appointed as preparations for strengthening immunity, ATP, vitamin A and multivitamin therapy for general strengthening of the body.

Physiotherapy is used in the form of UV, electrophoresis, inductothermy, magneto- and laser therapy.

Homeopathic remedies for treatment are prescribed by a homeopathic physician and should be taken individually. With symptoms of chronic pharyngitis, the following are best suited: Apis, Barita muiriatikum, Gepar Sulfur, Mercurius, Mercurius Yodatum, Phytolacca, Rus toxicodendron.

If the cause of catarrhal pharyngitis in casting acidic stomach contents into the esophagus and oral cavity, it is necessary to raise the head end of the bed. Just put a pillow higher is not worth it, as this will lead to excessive pressure on the esophagus and deterioration of the condition. By the way, to drink and eat preferably at least 1.5-2 hours before bedtime.

Photogallery: treatment tools

Video: pharyngitis treatment with phytotherapy

Hypertrophic pharyngitis

The main goal of the treatment is to eliminate the cause that caused the ailment.

Assign anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of rinses and irrigation - Tantum Verde, Givalex, tablets and lozenges with antiseptics and anesthetics for resorption. Necessarily appoint gargles with alkaline, saline solutions, herbal infusions and decoctions to remove accumulated mucus and facilitate expectoration, as well as to remove puffiness.

Well-proven throat lubrication with tannin solution in glycerin, 5% resorcinol solution, 30% propolis solution, irrigation with 2% protargol solution, collargol or lapis to remove puffiness and surface disinfection. Apply iodine preparations( Lugol's solution) to treat the mucous surface, Jox for irrigation.

Treatment of chronic pharyngitis

Irrigating the mucous throat with

. Inflamed pellets are cauterized with a solution of silver nitrate or trichloroacetic acid. Oil inhalations( pine, sage, eucalyptus), alkaline and saline inhalations well soften and facilitate the patient's condition. Physiotherapy is applied - electrophoresis on the upper neck region with 3% potassium iodide.

Cryotherapy, laser treatment, radio wave stamping are shown with severe hypertrophy and lack of the effect of conservative treatment. Laser cauterize hypertrophied areas, apply cryotherapy, galvanocaustic. With significant hyperplasia, the tongue is partially amputated by means of a polyp loop.

Immunostimulants( Ribomunil, Likopid, Immunoriks), multivitamin complexes for strengthening of general resistance of an organism are mandatory.

Gallery: drugs for treating hypertrophic forms

Treatment of atrophic pharyngitis

Treatment of this form of pharyngitis - a long andis effective only at the subatrophic stage. The patient must undergo regular check-ups, annually pass tests for histological examination.

The primary goal of the treatment is to eliminate harmful factors and restore the properties of the mucous throat. An important role in the treatment is played by immunomodulants, antiviral prophylaxis is regularly carried out by Lavomax, Arbidol, and others.

Local treatment is aimed at stimulating the glandular apparatus, reducing mucus viscosity, and regenerating the mucous membrane.

To do this:

  1. Cleaning the pharyngeal walls from lumps of mucus and crust with a cotton swab with vegetable oil or alkaline rinses.
  2. Physiotherapy - UFO, UHF, laser exposure( to improve hemodynamics), electrophoresis with 0.5% nicotinic acid solution on the upper neck area( course of 20 procedures).
  3. Application of medicines to the pharyngeal walls.
  4. Rinses for cleansing the throat and preparing the application of the drug are carried out with alkaline solutions, propolis solution( 2 tsp for 150 ml boiled water), 1% sodium chloride solution with 10% iodine solution( 200 ml 4 drops).Treat the cleared pharynx with Lugol's solution, sea-buckthorn, eucalyptus oil, apply formulas with ginseng root and mummies, carry out warm( not hot!) Oil inhalations. All this has a stimulating effect on the cells of the pharyngeal mucosa.

The patient shows sanatorium treatment.

For any form of pharyngitis, hot, cold, spicy, sour dishes should be excluded. Food should be warm, not rough. Be sure to drink a lot of warm liquid - herbal teas, infusions, but sour, carbonated, caffeinated drinks can not be consumed.

Folk remedies

Folk recipes can be excellent helpers in the treatment of ailment, help to relieve inflammation and pain.

  1. Herbal collection: chamomile, calendula( flowers), sage, dogrose( fruits) are mixed in equal parts, 3 tablespoons of the mixture is poured with a liter of boiling water, insist for 60 minutes, then drink as tea in a warm form.
  2. A good softening effect is possessed by the infusion of thyme. Spoon the herbs pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist for 1.5 hours, rinse the throat.
  3. For treatment apply fresh juices from carrots and potatoes, which are mixed in equal parts, add 1 spoonful of honey and drink 0.5 cups a day.
  4. Aloe juice is recognized as an effective treatment for all types of pharyngitis, which I use for rinsing in diluted form( in half with boiled water).
  5. Aloe juice( 2 tbsp.) Is added to a glass of warm milk and drunk twice a day before meals.
  6. Lubricate the inflamed sore walls well with peach or sea-buckthorn oil and propolis tincture, mixed in equal proportions.

Photo Gallery: traditional medicine

Exacerbations of Chronic

process can be exacerbated for many reasons:

  • infectious agents - viral, bacterial;
  • allergens;
  • external irritants - dust, dry air, too hot, cold or spicy food;
  • uncontrolled intake of certain drugs, for example, vasoconstrictor drops or sprays;
  • general abrupt hypothermia;
  • strong stress;
  • inflammatory processes in the organs of the upper respiratory tract;
  • exacerbation of gastric pathologies.

Treatment of exacerbation is primarily aimed at eliminating the underlying causes. If the cause is a bacterial infection, antibiotics are prescribed in tablets or capsules. In case of fever, antipyretic agents are prescribed.

In most cases, the doctor prescribes local anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic agents.

In general, treatment depends on the form in which the inflammatory process takes place. For example, with exacerbation of hypertrophic pharyngitis, cauterizing local remedies, cryotherapy, physiotherapy are used. At mucosal atrophy, in addition to the main drugs, it is necessary to take mucolytic agents for liquefaction of mucus, make oil inhalations.

Features of the disease in children

Inflammation of the pharynx in children is often acute. Very rarely, pharyngitis occurs in the child as an independent disease, mainly it accompanies the inflammatory process in the upper respiratory tract, when the child has a fever, the temperature rises, coughing begins, and a runny nose. The child complains of pain in the throat, especially when swallowing, pershenie, pain can be given in the ears.

Pediatricians divide pharyngitis in children into acute, subacute and chronic.

Pharyngitis of the foal

A sick child must be examined by a pediatrician and an otolaryngologist in order to prescribe the correct treatment.

Transition of the disease into a chronic form in a baby can provoke:

  • a prolonged disruption of nasal breathing;
  • harmful influence of external stimuli - dust, smoke, dry air;
  • Allergies;
  • disorders of the endocrine system;
  • untreated foci of infection( eg, carious teeth).

Video: sore throat in a child - Dr. Komarovsky

A sick child must be examined by a pediatrician in order to diagnose and prescribe the right treatment. To the kid appoint plentiful warm drink, a throat irrigation and rinsings antiseptic and anti-inflammatory solutions, steam inhalations, sparing a diet.

It is important to remember that when complaining about pain in the throat, especially when accompanied by high fever, you should never self-medicate, as this can be a manifestation of angina or a dangerous infectious disease.

Pharyngitis in pregnancy

Pharyngitis in pregnant women can be acute or have a chronic course, but in any case, the doctor should treat the disease.

Future mums with chronic pharyngitis are prescribed:

  • Half-bed mode, gentle diet, voice rest, warm drink in sufficient quantity.
  • Rinses for a throat a solution of sea salt or 1% a solution of chloride of sodium, broth of a calendula, a camomile, inhalations with alkaline water.
  • The throat is oiled with sea buckthorn oil with the addition of vitamin A, with strong puffiness - with a solution of collargol.
  • Tablets are shown Lisobact( local immunomodulator).
  • When acute, doctors prescribe irrigation of the throat when sprays are permitted in pregnancy - Tantum Verde, Cameton, Ingaliptom.

With increasing temperature, Paracetamol can be used.

All medicines pregnant women can use only in agreement with the therapist and gynecologist!

Possible complications and concomitant diseases

Chronic pharyngitis with insufficient or incorrect treatment can lead to unpleasant consequences.

Among them, inflammatory diseases of the ENT and upper respiratory tract: tonsillitis( inflammation of the tonsils), laryngitis( inflammation of the larynx), tracheitis( inflammation of the trachea), bronchitis are among them. There are complications in the form of lymphadenitis( inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes), sialoadenitis( inflammation of the salivary glands), catarrh of the middle ear( inflammation of the auditory tube).

Pharynx

Anatomical location of the pharynx and adjacent organs

Especially dangerous are pharyngitis caused by streptococci. These pathogens can lead to serious complications on different organs: kidneys( glomerulonephritis), heart( endocarditis), joints( rheumatoid arthritis).

A patient with streptococcal pharyngitis who does not take medication, risks getting complications in the form of paratonsillar abscesses( abscesses near the tonsils) or an abscess( purulent inflammation of the cellulose and lymph nodes of the pharyngeal space).

Atrophic pharyngitis can lead to cancer of the pharynx.

Prevention

The main rule for the prevention of chronic diseases is to carry out the entire complex of medical measures in case of acute primary disease. Treatment must be completed.

General recommendations:

  • to quench the body;
  • with immunosuppressed immunomodulators;
  • in time to treat diseases of the nasopharynx, rhinitis, sinusitis, teeth and gums;
  • eliminate, or at least reduce, exposure to harmful environmental factors( smoke, dust, dry, cold or hot air);
  • to quit smoking;
  • it is rational and balanced to eat, remove from the diet excessively salty, sharp, sour dishes, supper 2-3 hours before bedtime;
  • if nasal breathing is disturbed in time to restore it, try not to use vasoconstrictor.

Observing simple rules, you can protect yourself from this unpleasant disease.

A harmless, at first glance, disease can lead to severe consequences. With the symptoms of pharyngitis, most people came across. To prevent the process from turning into a chronic form that can later cause systemic complications, you are treated on time. Do not let everything go by itself, do not neglect medical recommendations and you will avoid serious health problems. Love yourself and be healthy!