Parathyroid gland diseases: hyperfunction and hypofunction

The main functions of parathyroid glands in the human body are to regulate calcium and ensure the normal functioning of the motor and nervous systems. Disorders in the parathyroid glands are hyperfunction and hypofunction: in the treatment of the first, surgical intervention is necessary, the second is treated with preparations with a high content of calcium and vitamin D.

Parathyroid hormones and their action

Parathyroid or parathyroid glands are located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In most cases, there are 4, but there may be 5 or more( about 4% of observations).The average size of each such gland is 5 x 3 x 1 millimeter, weight about 40 milligrams.

At the cellular level, the tissue of the parathyroid glands consists of parathyroid cells producing parathyroid hormone, a substance of a protein nature that can raise the level of calcium in the blood by stimulating calcium leaching from the bones, reducing the release of calcium from the kidneys and increasing its absorption in the intestine. The action of this parathyroid hormone is to maintain an unchanged level of calcium in the blood, which is important for the work of the heart, muscles, nervous system and normal blood coagulation. Its release begins in response to a drop in the level of calcium in the blood. With normal amounts of parathyroid hormone, its effect on the bones, kidneys and intestines passes unnoticed for the body - bone strength is maintained at the proper level by Calcitonin, produced by the thyroid gland, and vitamin D taken with food.

Hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands: symptoms and treatment

Hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands develops as a result of a tumor process in the thyroid tissue that also severs parathyroid glands. This parathyroid gland disease can also develop in renal failure or in disorders of vitamin D metabolism in the intestinal wall. Then the blood level is constantly lowered the level of calcium, which causes the parathyroid gland to produce large amounts of parathyroid hormone, which constantly cleanses calcium from the bones, making them fragile. Gradually, the mechanism of regulation of parathyroid hormone is broken, and it begins to be released continuously, regardless of the level of calcium in the blood, which further worsens the condition of the bones.

The main symptoms of this disease of parathyroid glands are pathological fractures with insignificant load, due to the fact that the structure of the bones is broken. Simultaneously, because of the decrease in the release of calcium by the kidneys, it begins to be deposited directly in the kidneys, and kidney stone disease develops.

The diagnosis is based on radiographs and densometry, on which it is possible to notice an increase in the fineness and fragility of the osseous structures, measurement of the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood( high), total and ionized calcium in the blood( high), blood phosphorus( low), daily loss of calcium in the urine(reduced).

Urolithiasis is based on ultrasound of the kidneys.

For examination of parathyroid tissue, thin-needle biopsy is performed under the supervision of ultrasound.

Treatment of this parathyroid gland disease is carried out by surgical removal of adenoma, hyperplastic parathyroid gland, cancer tumor.

Parathyroid gland function: causes and symptoms

Parathyroid gland function develops as a result of an operation on the thyroid gland when parathyroid glands are removed or damaged. Another cause of this disease of parathyroid glands may be a congenital maldevelopment or complete absence of parathyroid glands.

Symptoms of this parathyroid disease are painful muscle cramps due to lack of calcium, crawling in different parts of the body, a feeling of lack of air, compressing pain behind the sternum due to deterioration of the heart with a lack of calcium.

Diagnostics. The blood shows a low level of parathyroid hormone in the blood, which is accompanied by a decrease in the level of calcium and an increase in the phosphorus of the blood.

Treatment. A diet rich in calcium. Taking Calcium and Vitamin D Drugs.