Diet for cholelithiasis or how to defeat the ailment
Worldwide, with the development of the food industry and the availability of its finished products, as well as semi-finished products for everyone's purchase, the number of diseases of the gallbladder and its ducts also grows. Statistics on this situation is the following: in well-developed countries, an ailment is affected by 15-25% of the population, and in countries less developed to 10%.
Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment can be therapeutic or surgical. However, in any case, it is necessary to follow the diet for cholelithiasis.
Stages of the disease
Three stages are distinguished during cholelithiasis.
- Chemical. At this time there is a disruption of the production of normal bile by the gallbladder. As a result, it contains a large amount of cholesterol and small phospholipids and bile acids. If the disease is not detected at this stage and the appropriate methods of treatment are not taken, including diet, then from the pathogenic bile solid flakes and crystals are formed. These processes can last many years, stones begin to form and a second stage begins.
- Kamnonositelstvo ( asymptomatic or latent).This period is characterized by congestion of bile and active stone formation, most often occurring against the background of inflammation of the gallbladder mucosa and inflammation of its walls. In studies, "mute" stones are diagnosed. In duration, this stage can be 11 years, when a person does not feel obvious anxiety.
- Calculous ( clinical) or the period when the formed stones manifest themselves in the form of pain symptoms( pain in the right hypochondrium, hepatic colic) and sensations of malaise( bitterness in the mouth, eructation, flatulence, bloating, etc.).The course of the disease at this stage can be different - acute, prolonged with periodic exacerbations, sluggish. It all depends on the size of the stones and their location. But in any case, you can not ignore it.
Along with medical methods( drug therapy, surgery) to facilitate the condition and prevent complications and for the overall treatment of cholelithiasis, a diet is recommended.
Diet No. 5 for cholelithiasis
In the official medical practice, a special diet No. 5 has been developed that recommends the following approaches for organizing a nutrition system for people with cholelithiasis:
- reduction in the diet of a quantity of food with a high cholesterol content in order to prevent the stone formation processpart of gallstones consists of cholesterol);
- fractional food in small portions 5-6 times a day;
- consumes warm foods that help liquefy bile;
- it is undesirable to eat cold and hot food;
- the daily norm of drinking water should be equal to 2 liters;
- weekly unloading days on cucumbers, kefir, apples, cottage cheese.
Useful products for this disease are:
- curd, kefir, cheese, which contain both necessary for the body proteins and calcium, and also contribute to the creation of a more alkaline environment of bile, which prevents the increase of its viscosity and density;
- for normal production of bile acids, low-fat fish and meat, egg white, olive and other vegetable oils are useful;
- to reduce the processes of crystallization of bile should eat foods high in vitamins A, B, C.( berries, vegetables, fruits);
- products rich in magnesium - porridge of oatmeal, millet, buckwheat and barley cereals, dried fruits;
- to increase intestinal motility and prevent constipation should eat prunes, beets and foods high in plant fiber;
- vegetarian soups;
- it is useful to drink mineral water( "Essentuki No. 17").
Prohibited products are:
- fatty meat and fish, fat, animal fats and products based on them( butter), sauces based on fat( mayonnaise, etc.), egg yolk;
- excluded from the diet fried foods, smoked meat, meat and other canned food, meat and fish broths, mushroom soups;
- sweet pastry;
- berries and fruit of acidic varieties;
- cocoa and products based on it( chocolate, creams, etc.), coffee;
- spicy spices, vinegar-based marinades, spicy seasonings;
- sour and carbonated drinks.
Diet № 5 for cholelithiasis offers the following sample menu:
- for breakfast - pudding from cottage cheese 130 g, oatmeal with olive oil 150 g, a glass of tea with milk;
- for snack - sweet apple;
- for lunch - a portion of vegetarian soup, stewed vegetables( preferably carrots) in olive oil 150 g with a piece of boiled meat 70 g, 200 g decoction of rose hips;
- for a snack - 200 g of briar broth with lean rusk or bread;
- for dinner - garnish of boiled potatoes 150 g, a piece of boiled fish 100 g and vegetable cutlets from cabbage and carrots with vegetable oil, tea;
- 2 hours before bed - a glass of kefir.
This course is held for a long time for 1.5-2 years. Dishes and ingredients can be changed, following the basic dietary recommendations.
Diet for exacerbation of cholelithiasis
In cases when there are exacerbations of the disease, diet No. 5a is applied. Its duration is 1.5-2 weeks. After that, they switch to the long-term diet No. 5.
- for the first breakfast - 150 g of semolina porridge, egg yolk omelet 100 g, 200 g of tea with milk;
- for the 2nd breakfast - buckwheat porridge with olive oil from 150 g with steamed meat cutlets 100-120 grams, a piece of white stale bread, tea;
- for lunch - half a portion of vegetarian soup based on rice and vegetables, boiled chicken fillet 100 g, buckwheat porridge with vegetable oil 150 g, jelly dessert based on milk 100 g;
- for dinner - garnish of mashed potatoes 150 g, a piece of boiled fish 100 grams, tea with milk;
- 2 hours before sleep you can drink a glass of kefir.
Careful compliance with the diet during cholelithiasis effectively helps reduce the risk of surgical intervention, and also helps to stop the pathological process of stone formation.