Gingivitis gum disease: clinical forms and causes

According to statistics, more than 70% of the world population faces gingivitis. As a rule, the disease caused by the activity of bacteria is accompanied by swelling and gums and bloody discharge. If you do not detect an alarming symptomatology in time and do not perform effective therapy, gingivitis can develop into a more serious illness - periodontitis.

Causes of the disease gingivitis

This inflammatory disease of the gums, which occurs as a result of adverse effects on the body and the condition of the oral cavity of both general and local factors. With this disease, the integrity of the attachment of teeth is not impaired and there are no destructive changes in the periodontium. Inflammation of periodontal tissue occurs in response to damage to the dental plaque and against a background of imbalance between microorganisms. Pathogenic for periodontal microorganisms are introduced into tissues where there is erosion or directly through the cell membrane. In response to the damage, an inflammatory process always arises, which is the protective reaction of the organism, aimed at the isolation and destruction of pathogenic microbes.

Prolonged exposure to unfavorable factors translates the inflammatory process into a chronic form, which means that the mechanisms directed first against bacteria begin to destroy the tissues themselves.

Gingivitis usually proceeds in a mild form, without causing destruction in the gingival junctions. But sometimes this disease can grab a fairly large area of ​​the gum, up to the defeat of the gums of both jaws, so do not ignore it.

Internal causes of gingivitis are different : it can appear with the growth of teeth( when a growing tooth damages the gum on a large enough area);with a lack of vitamins;with a decrease in immunity;with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract pr.

External causes of gingivitis are burns( including chemical), injuries, infections and some other lesions. The main role in the development of this disease is played by pathogenic microbes that are contained in dental plaque.

Gingivitis is often the only symptomatic manifestation of periodontitis, stomatitis and periodontitis.

Ulcerative gingivitis can occur as a result of exposure to the body of toxins( especially heavy metal salts).For example, plaque prosthesis monomers often cause chronic gingival burn and provoke the development of gingivitis. Sometimes this form of gingivitis is a concomitant disease in blood leukemia, etc. In some cases, ulcerative gingivitis can be triggered by stress.

Symptomatic of gingivitis directly depends on its type and form. There are local and common gingivitis. In the latter case, the gum is inflamed in a large area, and either the gums of both jaws or only one of them can be covered. The local appearance of gingivitis is concentrated on a small segment of the gum( for example, around 1-3 teeth).

Hypertrophic gingivitis can occur on the background of hormonal changes( during adolescence, during pregnancy, etc.), due to the use of certain medications, as a result of blood disease. The bite anomaly, dysplasia, and the habit of breathing through the mouth have a large impact on the development of the disease.

Ulcerative gingivitis can occur acutely or catastrophically, leaking against a background of general intoxication of the body( after all, the cause of its occurrence is exposure to toxic substances).

Symptoms of acute, chronic and catarrhal gingivitis Symptoms of are pain in the gums, bleeding, bad breath, indigestion, headaches, insomnia, a sense of weakness, loss of appetite, increased body temperature, an increase in nearby lymph nodes and their soreness. On the gingival margin, a fetid gray coating is observed, which bleeds when removed and causes severe pain. Tartar is present on the teeth. A blood test shows that ESR( erythrocyte sedimentation rate) is increased. Gum healing with this form of the disease occurs very slowly, often the acute period is replaced by angiomatosis. After neglected cases, deep and rough scars remain on the site of gum lesions, which can even deform the gum.

In chronic gingivitis , a slow course of the disease and almost complete absence of bright symptoms are observed. The gums will bleed moderately, the cyanosis of the mucosa and loosening of the tissues will be insignificant at the beginning, but as the disease progresses the symptoms will begin to manifest more strongly. Painful symptoms of chronic gingivitis can completely cover the crown of the tooth.

Symptoms in the acute form of gingivitis - pain, excessive salivation, bad breath. Inspection of the oral cavity allows you to detect swelling and soreness of the gums, a local increase in temperature, sometimes there are ulceration of the gums.

Usually the inflammation lasts 1-2 weeks, and then the symptoms of acute gingivitis gradually abate or disappear altogether if the proper treatment has been applied. But sometimes gingivitis turns into a chronic form, then there is an additional symptom - bleeding gums when eating solid food and brushing your teeth.

Inspection reveals congestive flushing of the mucous edge of the gum, which is typical for chronic gingivitis.

There is catarrhal gingivitis , which is very similar to chronic and proceeds with periodic exacerbations. At the same time, the general condition of the person remains normal, only when cleaning the teeth and during eating gums can bleed, and there is an unpleasant aftertaste and odor from the mouth. With this clinical form of gingivitis, tartar is deposited on the teeth close to the gum.

Symptoms of hypertrophic gingivitis in fibrotic and ulcerative form

Fibrous form of hypertrophic gingivitis is manifested by proliferation of gingival papillae and parakeratosis, there is no swelling and infiltrates. There is an aesthetic defect, pain from rubbing the papillae with the edges of the prosthesis. At the same time they are dense, enlarged in size, painted in a pale pink color and do not bleed.

Symptomatic gingivitis is characterized by the fact that gum lesions will directly depend on the irritating factor: , for example, when poisoning with mercury, lead or bismuth, a dark border will be clearly visible on the edges of the gum;The patient will begin to experience increased salivation and metallic taste in the mouth.

Yazvenno-necrotic gingivitis differs even more acute course: first observed bleeding gums, on the mucosa visible giperemiya gum edge with areas of necrosis in the form of easily repulsed dirty gray mass. Necrotic process can be local or common( with gingival coverage completely).In severe cases, the gingival papillae are virtually indistinguishable, large clusters of calculus and soft plaque are found on the teeth.

Hypertrophic gingivitis develops after catarrhal gingivitis, when the latter passes into a chronic form. In the beginning the disease is asymptomatic, then there is development, when the disease flows into either fibrous or edematous form. The latter is characterized by a cosmetic defect, pain and bleeding gums( during eating or brushing teeth).The examination shows that the gingival papillae are sharply hyperemic or cyanotic and bleed when pressed, their surface is glossy, and after pressing on it there is a depression. On the teeth there is a stone, and a soft coating.

There are also gingivitis of pregnant , associated with hormonal changes in the body of a woman. Symptoms of the disease can occur in the II-th, less often - in the I-th trimester of pregnancy. The patient may experience gingrusa of the gums, which will increase. The gums will acquire a cyanotic color and begin to bleed. In the last weeks of pregnancy, deep dentogingival pockets are formed. But all these phenomena will disappear within 6 months after delivery, leaving no consequences.