19Feb

Diseases of the teeth, gums and common anomalies

The fact that a regular examination of a dentist needs to be held at least twice a year, everyone knows, - but does everyone follow these textbook rules? Meanwhile, neglected diseases of teeth and gums can lead to complications, including serious ones like phlegmon, osteomyelitis, periostitis and many other pathological ailments, some of which will require surgical intervention.

Complications of caries and other dental diseases

Poor oral hygiene or lack of it manifests itself just two days later, when an unpleasant smell appears from the mouth, and an unpleasant slippery coating appears on the teeth, gums and tongue. It consists of small food residues, particles of the epithelium of the oral mucosa and billions of different bacteria, fungi and viruses. If this coating remains in the mouth for a long time, then it starts to layer and gradually harden, then( literally in 6-12 months) the teeth will appear tartar, which will have to be removed only by professional methods.

This in the future can lead to other more serious complications - diseases of teeth and gums.

Of course, not only the lack of oral hygiene can cause widespread dental diseases, but also adverse external effects on the teeth: mechanical injuries, chemicals, physical factors, and penetrating radiation.

The internal factors of the body also affect the condition of the teeth and gums: diseases of the internal organs( especially of the gastrointestinal tract), metabolic disorders, excess or lack of fluoride in the drinking water, etc.

Of the tooth diseases, the most common are: caries, fluorosis, pulpitis, periodontitis( inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth).

Any of these diseases without timely treatment entails the development of new complications.

So, the complication of an untreated dental caries can be the development of periostitis and osteomyelitis of the jaw, phlegmon of the submaxillary region and face.

Inflammation of hard gum tissues

Among dental diseases there are defects of hard tissues - tooth enamel disease associated with its underdevelopment, hyperesthesia( increased sensitivity) of teeth, wedge-shaped defect, necrosis of tooth tissues. For example, yellow teeth indicate a weak enamel.

Diseases of the gum - periodontium - begin with inflammation of the gum tissue, when it becomes loose, edematous and bleeds. All these periodontal tissue diseases are accompanied by soreness, so a person tries to avoid solid food and stops brushing his teeth. The latter action can only exacerbate the situation and contribute to the development of inflammation. This condition of the gums is called gingivitis.

There are other diseases of the periodontal tissue, more serious, associated with lysis - partial destruction of the gum tissue, when the nutrition, mineral exchange or blood supply of the periodontal and bone tissue of the jaws is disturbed. This condition is called periodontitis. There are diseases of the gums, which are necessarily preceded by caries, so it is important to monitor the health of the teeth and at the proper time to treat them.

Some gum diseases, for example periodontitis, develop against a backdrop of strongly developed caries, as well as for other reasons: due to infection, less often due to trauma or exposure to toxins. In diseases of the gums, the patient tries to eat less solid food, as a result, the gums even more weak and stop transferring even daily brushing of teeth. In this case, regular hygiene of the oral cavity and professional consultation of the dentist are required, which will tell you what remedies should be used to restore gum health.

Disease and other abnormalities of teeth formation

There is such a phenomenon as crowding of teeth when there is a pathological disease of teething outside the dental arch. This infringement is desirable to prevent at an early stage, as later a whole complex of dental measures will be required to eliminate the defect.

In addition to directly diseases of teeth and gums, they also have various anomalies. There are abnormalities of the teeth that arise when the tooth tissue is formed incorrectly. There are supercomplete teeth or there is a lack of one. In some cases there is a lack of several teeth or in general a complete absence of teeth( adentia).These anomalies are fixed after the end of teething, that is, after 20-22 years.

Sometimes teeth are damaged as a result of unfavorable occupational factors - acid damage, mercury changes in the enamel, necrosis, etc.

To the anomalies of tooth formation, a pathological phenomenon, like pericoronaritis, occurs when the teeth are hard to erupt( mostly wisdom tooth).

The gap between the front teeth also refers to pathological phenomena, but if this defect is negligible, it is often perceived as something individual, attractive and even sexual.