Vomiting and bouts of abdominal pain in a child always cause panic in the mother. The first thing she thinks about is appendicitis and other scary things. Well, if the mother immediately calls an ambulance, and already a qualified specialist examines the child. Waiting and self-treatment in this case can be very dangerous. Often, a mother simply can not determine the cause of the pain on her own, so pediatrician's help is needed.
- 1 Possible causes of vomiting and abdominal pain in a child
- 2 What should I do if I have severe pain and vomiting?
- 3 Methods for examining the digestive tract
- 4 Digestive system diseases and their treatment
Possible causes of vomiting and abdominal pain in the child
Single vomiting and minor pain in the abdomen, usually indicate food poisoning or minor disturbances in the pancreas. However, constant vomiting and severe pains are an alarming sign. With frequent vomiting, the child loses fluid, suffers from dehydration.
Mom can not reliably determine the cause of pain and vomiting, but can assume it. To do this, you need to accurately characterize the intensity and type of pain, remember what the child ate the day before, and what other symptoms he has besides pain and nausea:
- If vomiting and pain are associated with diarrhea and skin rash, you can talk about food poisoning. It should be remembered that the child ate on this day and the day before, before calling a doctor. If the ration contained products that have expired or are unfamiliar to the child, you can talk about the body's response to them.
- If the abdominal pains are cutting and not too strong, vomiting is not frequent, and the child has not gone to the toilet for several days, it can be constipation. However, despite the apparent harmlessness of the diagnosis, do not underestimate constipation. Sometimes strong constipation can be confused with an intestinal obstruction, which requires immediate hospitalization.
- If a small child every time after feeding regurgitates so much that it looks like a vomiting, he has colic, bloating, problems with a stool, he does not eat well and sleeps, a pediatrician may suspect lactose intolerance. It occurs in older children. Special preparations or lactose-free formulas for feeding are prescribed.
- Vomiting and abdominal pain in a child, diarrhea can become a consequence of infection by parasites, for example, worms, lamblias. To clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary to take tests, after which the doctor will prescribe the treatment. Similar problems often occur in children who are not accustomed to observe personal hygiene.
It is worth paying attention, in what situations there is pain: it can be functional or psychological. There are cases when a child vomits precisely in stressful situations, on the eve of control, etc. In this case, it will be useful to consult a child psychologist.
In rare cases, severe headache( migraine) can cause vomiting and upset stomach. Migraine often manifests itself in school age: children talk about severe headaches, eyebrows before the eyes, dizziness, often accompanied by vomiting.
Why does the child have a stomach ache, which can be a provoking factor? Answers - in the video:
What to do with severe pain and vomiting?
Of course, the first thing parents should do is to call an ambulance. In any case, vomiting and pain require examination. Prior to the arrival of a doctor, you can provide first aid. You can give the child to drink, but in small quantities. Do not give him food or pain medication - they can lubricate the overall clinical picture.
The pain subsides, but the danger remains. It is especially dangerous to relieve pain with appendicitis, since you can miss the moment when surgical intervention is necessary. If the child has a high fever( 38-40 degrees), you can give him antipyretic, age-appropriate. However, it is necessary to inform the doctor that the fever was, and you knocked it down.
No need to pack a small child and cover with warm blankets. If there is a fever, the temperature will rise even more. The position of the body should be such that the head was above the level of the abdomen. It is necessary that in case of vomiting the child does not choke and inhale vomit. If the pain is unbearable, the child screams, and before the arrival of the ambulance is still a long time, you can give a pill no-shpy, but you need to inform the doctor about it.
There are things that you can not do in this situation. Do not put your enema on your own and wash your stomach. Sometimes the reasons are not in constipation and poisoning. Such procedures can aggravate the situation, as well as lead to dehydration.
If the child has already vomited several times, parents often tend to feed the baby, because they believe that the stomach is empty and it is weak. Do not feed the baby within 6 hours after the last attack of vomiting. Food will irritate the stomach and may trigger a new attack.
Especially it is not necessary to use such "grandmother's methods", as warming up with a heating pad. It can be very dangerous. In the case of appendicitis, such warmers will only accelerate its breakthrough. Do not warm or cool until the doctor comes. If the child is so much easier, he can put a pillow on his stomach.
Do not leave symptoms such as pain and vomiting, without attention. Very often, children's appendicitis is accompanied by mild pain, but it proceeds more quickly than in adults, it is easier to miss. It is worth remembering that with very strong unbearable pain, you can not give your child food, drink or any medication. If it turns out that there are violations of the integrity of the stomach or intestinal wall, such procedures can be very dangerous. Especially the stomach should be absolutely empty, if the child is to undergo an operation.
Methods for examining the digestive tract
worms. If abdominal pain, acute or chronic, occurs, the child's vomiting needs to be examined. All appointments are made by a pediatrician. As a rule, the district doctor listens to all complaints, collects anamnesis, examines the child, can perform palpation of the abdomen, and then directs to a narrower specialist - gastroenterologist.
Mandatory tests: urine, feces and blood. They will help in the diagnosis, point out the disruption in the body and inflammatory processes. Separately, the analysis of feces for eggs of worms is taken. In addition to all of the above, the following procedures can be assigned to the child:
- Gastroscopy. This is a rather unpleasant procedure, which consists in examining the esophagus, stomach and duodenum with a thin tube that is inserted into the mouth. However, there is no more informative examination of the stomach at the moment. With this procedure, you can quickly determine the presence of lesions, tumors, bleeding, ulcers and even immediately eliminate some of them. Children need to prepare for this procedure, but in no case do not cheat. It is necessary to give concrete and understandable information, especially to older children. Before gastroscopy it is necessary to withstand 4-6 hours of hunger. If the child is so small that nothing can be explained to him, there is a danger that the child will move and damage the esophagus mucosa, so the procedure is performed under general anesthesia.
- ultrasound. Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity helps to determine the condition of many organs: the stomach, liver, gall bladder, etc. However, sometimes the information obtained as a result of this survey is quite general, therefore, a further examination( for example, FGS) is prescribed.2-3 days before the US it is desirable to hold the child on a non-strict diet: to exclude all the cream, carbonated, harmful, fried. It is not advisable for small children to give vegetable and fruit purees on the day of examination, as they are digested for a long time.
- X-ray or CT, MRI with contrast. Quite informative and painless methods of examination. Unfortunately, it can be difficult for young children to stay without movement for a long time in the MRI unit. X-rays are done more quickly, however, it is necessary to take into account a certain dose of radiation. If there is an examination of the intestine, the contrast can be injected into the rectum, which is quite unpleasant for the child.
Diseases of the digestive system and their treatment
As mentioned above, the cause of pain and vomiting may be lactose poisoning or intolerance, but sometimes the diagnosis reveals serious enough diseases that require constant monitoring by a doctor andcomplex treatment:
- Appendicitis. The peculiarity of children's appendicitis is that it is more difficult to define it, and this is the main danger. Unfortunately, it's very easy to miss an appendicitis in a child. Pain, as a rule, not strong, vomiting quickly stops, and mum writes off all on indigestion. As a result, the risk of complications increases. The only way of treatment is surgical, and the sooner the operation is performed from the moment of the onset of pain, the better.
- Inversion of the intestine. The site of the intestine is twisted, the lumen closes, does not pass feces. In the absence of treatment, necrosis of the part of the intestine may occur, the child's condition deteriorates rapidly, emergency hospitalization is required. The method of treatment is usually surgical, however sometimes enemas are sufficient, if the vortex is not strong.
- Acute diverticulitis. Diverticula are bulges in the gut that can become inflamed. This causes severe pain in the abdomen and vomiting. This disease is easily confused with appendicitis. Just like appendicitis, diverticulitis can be life-threatening, it requires immediate hospitalization and surgical intervention.
- Acute gastritis. In some cases, acute gastritis in a child manifests itself in the form of severe pain and vomiting. More often gastritis can be found in school children and the cause of it lies in the diet. Acute gastritis is treated with gastric lavage, sorbents( Smecta or activated charcoal), preparations for protecting the walls of the stomach( for example, Almagel), enzymes, spasmolytic and necessarily diet.
- Acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis is expressed in paroxysmal pain, nausea, vomiting. This disease is dangerous in that it can lead to necrosis of pancreatic tissue. If there are signs of a purulent process, surgical treatment is indicated. If there is no need for surgery, the child should still be observed in the hospital. He will be prescribed enzymes and a special diet.
This is not the whole list of possible diseases, which can lead to vomiting and severe pain in the abdomen of a child. Mummy should be vigilant and do not delay treatment to the doctor for fear that the child will be put in a hospital.
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